We are searching data for your request:
Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Organic farming companies
The Green Revolution of the 60s and 70s introduced hybrid seeds, radically changing the relationship between peasant and crop. These hybrid seeds produce weaker plants that need higher doses of pesticides and fertilizers. The recent introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and seeds (which go hand in hand with specific herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers) is the latest threat to balance and well-being, not only of the Earth, but also of humans. There are great economic interests linked to genetically modified seeds, and unfortunately this creates an unstoppable pressure on developing countries that are forced to accept these cultivation methods.
Today we are finally aware of the effects of chemical agriculture on our health, on the economic life of farmers, on the vitality of the soil, and on the well-being of all plants and animals. In many places, the land is now incapable of renewing itself and constantly requires the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. this also means the arrival of new pests and new diseases that appear resistant to chemical pesticides. Fortunately, organic farming is now widespread and more and more farms choose to grow organic, obtaining the strict certifications that our country grants to companies that respect the rules of organic cultivation.
Companies that have switched over to organic farming have had to undergo a period of “decontamination”, where the soil has been left to rest and treated with cover and green manure methods and, only after a careful analysis that establishes its suitability, they have obtained the necessary certifications to start their own organic farming business. In some cases, the same company carries out two lines, one traditional and one organic; in this case the crops must be adequately separated and undergo greater controls by the authorities in charge. Currently each European country has several organic certification logos, in particular countries like Germany, they can present up to 19 different ones. In Italy there are fewer, but the community project started in 2010 is to unify the logo with the EU Organic logo in order to offer recognizable products.
Organic farming is based on holistic principles; ecologically balanced agriculture that includes strict rules on soil fertility management, crop rotation and natural pest control. It may seem an approximate concept, but the basis of organic farming is actually very simple: allowing nature to do what nature does best.
Many everyday products can be produced on organic farms, including vegetables, cereals, dairy products, eggs and fibers such as cotton. What makes these things "organic" is precisely to keep them as close to their natural state as possible. In organic farming, farmers do not use synthetic pesticides or fertilizers on crops, and refuse the use of synthetic hormones, antibiotics or other drugs on their livestock. The animals are fed by organic feed and raised in open spaces.
Composting and crop rotation
Organic farming methods emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water. The term "organic farming" can be traced back to 1940, when Lord Northbourne, an agronomist, wrote about the concept of "farm as a living being". In his famous book entitled "Look to the Earth" the agronomist assumes that all living beings are connected to each other through the sharing of food and the earth.
It all starts with good soil, the right composition of the soil leads to healthy crops and reduces the susceptibility to animal diseases, increasing the company's overall productivity. Common techniques used by organic farmers to manage soil quality, which not only involve the soil itself, but also water, weeds, diseases and pests, include the use of animal manure, compost, cover crops, green manure and crop rotation.
Compost is an organic material successfully used in home and decorative environments, such as in gardens, and on farms. It consists of decomposing organic waste and is distributed on flower beds and fields from organic farming. The main components of compost are wood chips, grass clippings and leaves,
food waste such as coffee grounds, tea bags, fruit and vegetables.
Other organic fertilizers
The use of compost can promote the growth of "good" bacteria and fungi, helping to enrich the soil with nutrients, but also to eliminate or reduce the need for chemical fertilizers.
Green fertilizers and cover crops also improve soil quality. The plants are cultivated for the benefit of the soil and the main crops on the farm are chosen from a variety of cover crops depending on the needs of their fields.
Cover crops, in general, are used to protect the soil surface from water and wind erosion, helping to maintain the soil structure, and help maintain the level of organic substance while maintaining the soil healthy. Green manure is a type of cover crop grown specifically to add nutrients to the soil; the manure is plowed with the soil, increasing the organic part of the soil.
Cover crops are also used in place of conventional pesticides to keep weeds and pests at bay. Precisely because weeds generally grow only where there are uncovered areas, not occupied by other plants, the cover crops act as a bollard, occupying any available space on the ground. The idea behind the use of cover crops in pest control is to offer a beneficial habitat for insects such as ladybugs that "work" for the crop, fighting unwanted pests and offering a viable alternative to chemical pesticides.
Crop rotations are also a major part of the organic farmers' strategy, which uses this system to help sustain soil fertility. For example, an organic farmer can grow wheat on a field, graze sheep on that field the following year and plan to plant a clover cover crop the next year. Unlike monocultures that greatly impoverish the soil, rotational crops constantly renew and enrich the soil.