In nature, nothing is more spectacular than the birth of a flower. The scientific detail alone arouses wonder for the quantity of elements involved and for the refined and harmonious collaboration of the functions that contribute to this magnificent explosion of plant life.
Beyond the severe scientific / rational gaze the birth of a flower strikes the feeling and stimulates the human conscience by offering it the possibility of assisting in the action of the forces of "growth": that miracle of life that translates the potential of a seed into a accomplished body of extraordinary beauty.
Those who love flowers know well that in addition to the gifts, with the undeniable practical advantages, which they offer us in profusion, one of the reasons that lead them to cultivate it lies in the joy that causes them to see them bloom, grow and finally mature.
The flower can be defined as the plant's reproductive organ. Inside it develops fertile cells called "gametophytes", carriers of a single chromosomal kit (male or female) determining the unisexual, bisexual or hermaphroditic nature of the flower itself. However, let us remember that the flower itself has no sex but limits itself to producing the male fertilizing elements and the fertile female ones. More generally, a flower is a bud that produces fertile leaves (sporophylls), different in shape, size and color from normal leaves, able to produce spores (macro and micro) in which "gametophytes" are organized. Through the process of pollination, that is the transport of pollen grains, or spores (micro) containing male gametophytes, the fertile female element is reached at the fertilization or the production of the seed of the future new plant.
In the case of more complex flowers we distinguish four parts starting from the outer part:a) The Chalice is a part of the sterile flower whose leaves, green in color, have maintained their photosynthetic capacity (see chlorophyll photosynthesis). It is located in the outer part of the flower, at its base and partially envelops the Corollab) The Corolla, also sterile, is formed by wider and more colored petals characterized by the most varied shapes.Without a shadow of a doubt it is the most attractive part of the flower, the one that not only attracts the eyes of man, but also successfully succeeds in attracting pollinating insects to itself, thus performing a "vexing" function, we could say signaling, increasing the probability of plant reproductive success.c) The Gineceo is the female part of the flower. is located in its inner part. It has a splendid "amphora" shape whose swollen part, which is found at the lowest and protected point, is called "ovario". The narrow and long part of the "amphora" proceeds rising upwards constituting the entrance, and is called "stilo" and "stigma", in its outer part.d) The Androceo is the male part of the flower, it is also found inside the corolla, and originates in its innermost part as the Gineceo. The Androceo is composed of "stamens" (or filaments) that end each in an "anther". The "anther" is a small bulge, which curiously has the shape of a seed, and contains within it pockets in which the male gametophytes are kept.Floriculture
The art of growing flower plants is very ancient and we can already identify in the seventeenth century. the first scientific treatises in this regard. In 1633 the Jesuit father G.B.Ferrari published his treatise: "De florum cultura".
Over the centuries the introduction of plants originating from countries with climates different from those in which they would later have had to cultivate, due to the changed environmental requirements, determined an evolution of cultivation techniques that culminated with the adoption of new technologies such as greenhouses, or environments, created specifically for the cultivation of flowers and plants, which had the same characteristics as their natural habitats. The cultivation of flowering plants can be pursued for the most varied purposes.
For pleasure, that is in the home environment, where we are concerned about embellishing balconies and terraces with pots and herbaceous plants. For ornamentation, or in the field of gardening, which uses a wider choice of plants, including vines, trees and shrubs, hedges and flowerbeds. Finally for income. In the last 50-70 years, commercial floriculture has acquired considerable importance. For example, Holland, England and Germany specialize in greenhouse cultivation of orchids, roses and carnations while along the Mediterranean coast open-air floriculture is used, even in winter. Great growth has taken place in Italy of France and Holland of the cultivation of bulbous plants such as hyacinths and tulips. Finally we cannot forget countries like England, the United States and Japan. In general, the Floricolutra has now developed several specializations, here we indicate some of them:
The production of seeds of annual and perennial plants, of bulbs, of flowering plants, of flowering plants in pots, of cut flowers and parts of plants of essence.