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Copper beetles or leaf beetles are insect pests that pose a serious threat to orchards. They are small in size, but can jump to a very great height, which is why they began to be called leaf beetles.
This insect acquired its second name because its waste products look like small balls that cover the shoots with a sticky mass in their habitat.
There are many types of suckers, but the most common are apple and pear.
Description of the pest
Coppersmiths are common in the forest, steppe and forest-steppe zones of the country. The largest number is observed in the northwestern regions of Russia.
Adult pests are long up to 3 mm... In summer, they look bright, juicy colors prevail in color - green, red, Orange (depending on the type). In autumn and winter, insects take on discreet shades - dark brown, light yellow other.
Photos of copperheads:
The back pair of legs is similar to that of fleas - namely thanks to these limbs, the lice were able to jump... Antennae are long and thin. The wings are transparent, cover the body of the pest from above and from the sides.
The emergence of eggs is carried out at the end of winter, and the copperheads begin to fly at the end of May... After 14 days, they mate, then eggs appear. If the insect is adult and wintered, then it starts flying in the first half of March, and produces masonry at a temperature of +10 degrees.
Usually in the masonry there is 20 to 90 eggs... Insect females live only a month, but during this time, in favorable conditions, they lay up to 600 eggs in spring and up to 1200 - in summer.
Their size is small; in the process of ripening, they change color from whitish to light orange. Spring insects place their eggs at the swelling buds, summer ones - on the back of the leaves. When a leaf or branch dies off, the eggs also die.
REFERENCE! Depending on the species, the pest can lay eggs for the winter and die, or overwinter under fallen leaves.
The larvae that emerge from the eggs lead a passive lifestyle, before fledging pass through 5 phases of development... Newly hatched individuals live in the buds, and then, growing up, move to the branches themselves. Growing up, based on conditions, can take 15 to 60 days.
Copperheads are sucking insects. After the larva has emerged from the egg, for some time is on a branch and drinks juice after breaking through the bark.
Then, it is introduced into the bud, where the pest eats young leaves. When greenery appears on trees, the larvae cling to the cuttings and stalks.
Leaf beetles, depending on the species, affect a certain family of fruit-bearing trees - apple trees, pears, plums, cherry plum, hawthorn and others... Less common insects living on ive, poplar, birch, maple, ash and other leafy species.
Signs of plant damage by leaf beetles
A tree attacked by an insect begins to turn yellow, its leaves fall off. Buds damaged by larvae do not bloom.
In addition, in the sticky liquid emitted by copperheads, colonies of fungi begin to multiply, for example, sooty. Tree branches lose immunity, stop bearing fruit, dry up in summer, in winter - freezing.
If a flower damaged by a leaf beetle manages to survive and pollinate, then it grows into a fruit of an atypical shape with a tasteless tough pulp.
IMPORTANT! The main sign of the appearance of a pest in the garden is the presence of sticky liquid on the leaves, branches and buds. It shines in the sun and over time covers both inhabited and unoccupied parts of the tree.
There is in the world over 1300 species leaf beetles, of which about 300 are found on the territory of Russia. Some have gained great fame for the large damage caused to fruit and berry crops.
Plum beetle - attacks cherry plum and plum, causes spoilage and fall of fruits and foliage. Adults are long 2.3-2.8 mm, the front of the wings yellow-brown, veins are reddish.
Winters on deciduous and coniferous trees, lays eggs in May. After mating, the male and female fly away and hibernate on different plants.
Hawthorn flies - amazes apple tree, hawthorn, shishmulu... On an apple tree, the larvae settle in the buds and buds, preventing the development of leaves and shoots. Females are long up to 3.2 mm, males - up to 3 mm... The coloration differs depending on when the individual appeared.
Winter insects are dark brown, summer - yellow-green... Wintering takes place on a pine tree, then migration to a fruit plant is carried out, where females can produce up to 400 eggs.
Carrot lily - amazes planting carrots, parsley, parsnips... The adult insect is pale, reaching 1.5 mm in length.
Spends winter in coniferswhere, after waking up, it feeds. Then it flies to the carrot tops, where lays 100-200 eggs... By the fall, he returns back to the forests to the wintering place.
The apple sucker is most often found in areas where apple trees are grown. Eating, it releases sticky beads with a waxy coating, which, when disintegrating, stick together the buds, buds, clog the stomata of flowers. Due to the damage received, the buds dry up and fall off, the leaves do not develop.
Adult insects are up to 2.5 mm long... The head and chest are yellow-green, wings with reddish veins.
Only one pest generation is formed per year.... Eggs are laid in September-October, after which the adults die. They hibernate on the bark. The release of the larvae coincides with the beginning of budding on apple trees, they climb there and attach to the petioles.
Development to adult takes 30-40 days, which, after fledging, scatter through the nearby gardens and trees. In September-October, all insects return to the apple trees for laying. Females maximum can produce up to 180 eggs.
Drying of the leaves and branches on which the eggs are located leads to the death of the latter.
The pear flap is the most common pest that attacks pear trees.
Adults, depending on the time of appearance, may have orange-red color (summer) or dark brown (winter).
When the air temperature rises above +3 degrees, the pests wake up and begin to feed, and at +10 they can already lay eggs, about 1200 per generation.
In the southern regions of the country, the pear flap can hatch up to 5 generations per yearthat will be layered on top of each other. In the northern regions - 3-4 generations... Hot and dry weather favorably affects the rate of maturation of eggs and the fertility of females.
IMPORTANT! The most important difference between this insect and the apple sucker is that adults spend the winter, and not the clutches of eggs. During cold weather, they hide in fallen leaves, cracks and folds of the bark.
And yet, how to deal with copperhead? In order to protect yourself from the flies in early spring, before the buds begin to bloom, it is necessary to spray trees infusion of tobacco, yarrow, ash or soap.
Destroy eggsthat have already been laid in the trees, you can use a solution of nitrafen 3%.
If the time for the larvae to emerge from the eggs has passedthen during the opening of the kidneys you need to spray the shoots with a solution of the drug No. 30 at a concentration of 2% or chemicalsthat are used to kill aphids.
The best effect is obtained if the larvae are not covered with honeydew clots.
Winged flies can be neutralized by fumigating with tobacco smoke.
- heaps of dry grass are prepared;
- tobacco waste is poured on top;
- then the garden is processed for 2-3 hours.
All insects from the smoke should fall to the ground. So that they do not climb the branches again, you need to dig up the soil under the trees.
Sapling or honeydew is a common pest that affects fruit trees. A large number of species are known that got their name from the trees that serve them as food - apple, carrot, pear, etc.
Among them are insects that winter in adulthood and those that lay eggs in the fall. To combat pests, various kinds of insecticides and folk remedies are used.