Year-round industrial greenhouse allows you to grow vegetables and berries all year round.
They are built by agricultural complexes, farms, owners of large private farmsteads.
Industrial greenhouse: features
Industrial greenhouses differ from ordinary greenhouses in large sizes, they use heating systems, which allows you to get multiple harvests in year. Greenhouse buildings occupy a large area and are generally high in height.
Such structures can be multi-storey and multi-storey. For conditions Far north greenhouse buildings with walls made of capital building materials are being built, in which only artificial lighting is used.
Large, maximally equipped with electronic tracking systems and equipment, greenhouse buildings are being built in Holland.
The useful area of such structures is several thousand square meters.
They are real covered plantations.
The cultivation of vegetables, berries and flowers is carried out here not only in soil, but by methods hydroponics.
Then the plants are planted in a synthetic porous material resembling glass wool.
This material is supplied with minerals and water, selected individually for each culture. This technology allows for very high yields.
For Dutch greenhouse complexes special equipment for heating, irrigation, irrigation, fertilization is produced.
In such buildings, a multi-tiered heating system and a heated floor are made, the heating system provides for the generation and supply of carbon dioxide, which is needed for the metabolic processes of plants in the daytime. Dutch greenhouses are supplied to customers all over the world.
Russian enterprises mastered Western technologies for the production of industrial greenhouses.
Russian products cost farmers and individual customers a lot cheaper imported, besides, local enterprises that are engaged in the production of farm greenhouses, make them adapted to the weather conditions of the regions.
Large volume industrial greenhouses allows you to grow plants on racks, hanging pallets, using several tiers. The number of "floors" depends on the height of the plants. Greenhouse buildings do artificial lighting, which allows plants to receive more light in early spring and late autumn, as well as in winter.
REFERENCE: Industrial greenhouses have a large area, large volume, various types of heating and lighting.
Industrial greenhouses - photo:
Serially produced models
Large enterprises in all regions Of Russia develop standard designs for conventional and industrial greenhouses. They have created a series of projects and offer the buyer a wide range of products.
REFERENCE: in the design of industrial greenhouses are used SNiP 2.10.04-85
What are the types of industrial greenhouses? There are several types of professional greenhouses for the farmer:
- multi-tunnel with a gallery;
- block multi-span;
- garden centers.
Among farmers and owners of household plots, the most popular are farm tunnel greenhouses... The series are developed by manufacturers based on building codes existing in Russia.
Industrial-scale greenhouses are produced under film and under polycarbonate, different types of frame are used in the construction. The section of greenhouses can be arched, "Gothic", "with straight mills" and with "straight reinforced walls". The width of the greenhouse building varies within 3.5-12 meters.
Industrial greenhouses "Farmer" designed in compliance SNiP 2.10.04-85, they are intended for the industrial cultivation of vegetables, berries and seedlings. The frame of the farm greenhouse is assembled from a galvanized profile with bolts.
Arc-shaped trusses are pulled together by straight beams. The section of greenhouse buildings is semicircular (arched) or lancet ("Gothic").
Dimensions of industrial greenhouses "Farmer":
The height in various models of the series is 3-4 meters... This allows you to grow both tall crops and small ones, placing the seedlings on racks.
Greenhouses of this series are mounted on any foundation or on the ground in which the racks are dug in. The width of the structure is from 3.5 to 7.7 meters... The basic set includes double-leaf gates, which are mounted at the ends of the greenhouse building. At the request of the buyer, air vents can be additionally mounted.
Greenhouses covered transparent honeycomb polycarbonate... The customer can choose the thickness of the polycarbonate - 6 mm (recommended), 8 mm or 10 mm. Polycarbonate is fastened with special "polyscrep" fasteners; the covering material is attached to the end walls with corner brackets. In the greenhouse "Farmer" vegetables can be grown year-round.
Where to start building?
- Choosing a place.
- Selection and drafting of the project.
- Heating the greenhouse.
To get the most out of your investment, you need to get the right orient the building.
IMPORTANT: Best orientation of a long greenhouse building for areas south of latitude 60° - from North to South. In the northern regions of the country, it is recommended to orient greenhouse buildings from west to east.
Construction of industrial greenhouses begins with site selection. It should be maximally even (a slight slope of 0.04% is allowed). If hurricane winds occur in the region, it is necessary to provide for the construction of additional shields and fences that will reduce the wind speed. They will also protect the building from inflatable snowdrifts.
During melting snow and heavy rains, water should not accumulate on the site, which will flood greenhouse and destroy the foundation. Before starting the construction of industrial greenhouses, you should think about supplying it with water. The soil must be fertile, moreover, in order to obtain good yields, it is necessary to provide for the use of soil mixtures, natural and artificial fertilizers.
Selecting and drafting a project
Before building a greenhouse, the farmer and the owner of a private backyard need to decide what he will grow in the summer and winter. The result will be farm greenhouse drawing, as well as a list of requirements.
Experience shows that when building a critical structure that will last for years, it is better to rely on specialists... In specialized firms, the customer is provided with a choice of dozens of ready-made projects that correspond to his wishes. Here you can buy a disassembled ready-made greenhouse and mount it on a foundation. Typically, businesses offer installation services.
Projects and drawings of industrial greenhouses:
How to build industrial greenhouse? In order for the greenhouse to serve for many years, it must be mounted on foundation... The foundation allows you to securely fix the structure, prevents the penetration of atmospheric water from the outside, and protects the sown area from weeds.
Any kind is suitable for small industrial greenhouses foundation - on piles, block, point, slab, brick. For large greenhouses, a concrete foundation is usually made, less often a beam is used.
For farm and industrial greenhouses use sturdy frame arched or gable shape. The frame is assembled from a hat profile, from a profile pipe or from a corner.
The frame made of the hat profile is quick and easy to install, but this design can't stand heavy snow weight. If you decide to build farm greenhouses from a profile pipe, then the frame can be welded here. The pipe has a round or square cross section. This structure also does not support the heavy weight of the snow.
The best is the frame from the corner (corner profile). It is assembled on bolts, without welding, the profile is galvanized and can serve for many years. This design can support the weight of the snow. up to 100 kg per square meter.
The frame is fixed to the foundation. For strength, anchor bolts or pre-fixed studs are used. This mount will provide sufficient rigidity and strength, while the difference in the heat capacity of building materials will not contribute to the loosening of the structure in extreme heat and frost.
The frame can be aluminum... But the aluminum structure can deform under the influence of winds and heavy snow.
Industrial winter greenhouse - project:
Used as a covering material:
- cellular polycarbonate;
- polyethylene film.
Currently, the most popular covering material is cellular polycarbonate... It is easy to install, it is reliable during operation, does not collapse from accidental sharp blows. This material will not be broken even by heavy hail.
Foreign industry produces cellular polycarbonate of various thicknesses (from 3.2 to 25mm) and structure. For small winter professional polycarbonate greenhouses, material with a thickness of 3.2 to 6 mm is used. For greenhouse buildings and greenhouses, transparent polycarbonate is usually used. The light transmission coefficient depends on the thickness of the sheet and ranges from 62% before 83%.
The light transmittance of glass is high (88-92% for glasses of various thicknesses). Greenhouse structures can be glazed with both window and greenhouse glass, which is much stronger. Dutch industrial glass greenhouses are covered with a special look float... This glass is molded into ready-made forms, which increases its strength.
Film industrial greenhouses have been used for a long time, but this material has a number of disadvantages. It is difficult to fix the film without damaging it. The winds stretch the film, it starts to inflate and break, which is why it has to be changed. Farm arched greenhouses under the film, which are located in areas of strong winds, have to be blocked annually.
Film farmer greenhouses - photo:
For heating industrial greenhouses in winter install solid fuel, electric, gas boilers and boilers for liquid fuel. They heat the water, which circulates through pipes along the contour of the building and under its floor, fills the radiators. Thus, both the air and the soil are heated.
Industrial greenhouses can be heated by supplying warm air from heating electrical appliances... The room heats up very quickly, but after turning off the equipment, the temperature drops quickly. In this case, the soil does not heat up.
For heating farm greenhouses, you can use infrared heaters PLEN... Heater panels are mounted under the ceiling; during their operation, mainly soil, plants and structural elements are heated, but not the air.
Infrared radiation works just like the rays of the sun. Excess heat is released into the air. This type of heating for industrial greenhouses expensivebut very effective, the plants thrive in infrared rays and yield large yields.
IMPORTANT: In industrial greenhouses with heating, the temperature must be the same at all points in the room.
Industrial greenhouses allow you to get large yields in a small area. The quality and quantity of cultivated products depends little on the weather, which makes agricultural technologies for greenhouses more and more popular.
Watch a very interesting video about the manufacture of industrial greenhouses: