Eggplant is a southern plant, thermophilic and rather capricious.
Growing it requires certain knowledge and skills.
However, all these difficulties are worth it, because this culture contains a huge amount of vitamins!
Planting calendar for eggplant seedlings
To understand when to start sowing eggplants for seedlings, you need to decide where you are going to grow them - in a greenhouse or in the open field. Another important factor is the region of residence.
In the southern area, it is recommended to start sowing "blue", as many call them, already in February. The colder the area, the later you can start sowing - in March, or even in April.
REFERENCE! These plants have a very long growing season - they ripen from the germination stage to the formation of fruits on average up to 100 days.
First, it is worth deciding on the date of the landing of our "blue" in the ground. We count 55-60 days from this date - we get the days on which you should already have sprouts. Now we subtract two more weeks - the approximate time for seed germination, and we get the days on which it is time to start sowing eggplants. If you are in a hot climatic zone, or plan to grow "blue" in a greenhouse, they must be planted in early to mid-May, therefore, sowed in February. We select the numbers according to the lunar calendar. The most favorable days for sowing eggplant in February are 12, 14, 23 and 28.
If you live in central Russia, then the most optimal time for planting eggplants for seedlings is March, and planting in a greenhouse should take place in early or mid-June. In this case, you need to choose early ripening varieties so that the "blue" ones have time to ripen by the end of summer. The most favorable days in March according to the lunar calendar are March 3, 4, 12, 14, 16, 20, 25, 30 and 31.
It so happens that the "blue" ones did not sprout well after the first sowing, in which case it is necessary to re-sow them. The first decade of April is best suited for this. If sowing is carried out later, then the eggplants may not have time to ripen. For April, only early maturing varieties are suitable. Such seedlings can be planted in the ground at the end of June. According to the lunar calendar, the most favorable days in April - these are 9, 18, 22, 26, 27, 28.
After the date is selected, preparing seeds for planting... The seeds of this species of nightshade sprout very slowly and tightly. Therefore, before sowing them, you should definitely prepare them.
There are several ways to germinate and disinfect.
- Seeds nado place in a temperature of 50-52 degrees Celsius for 25 minutes, then immediately immerse in cold water for 3 minutes. Thus, all diseases from the seeds are destroyed. After that, the seeds must be soaked and held in a 0.01% sodium humate solution for 24 hours. After this procedure, the seeds can be germinated.
- We place the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate and keep them for 20 minutes... Next, we rinse them. This method also kills bacteria. Then we soak the seeds in Epin (4 drops per glass of water) at 24-28 degrees Celsius for 17-19 hours. We germinate.
Learn more about preparing seeds before sowing.
Germination is carried out in the following ways:
- The seeds need to be put on a saucer and wrap in a damp cloth and then in polyethylene. Leave in this form for 3-4 days at a temperature of 26-28 degrees. Avoid contact with heating devices.
- Another method, which accelerates the germination of grains, is the use of such special means as "Ideal", "Novosil", "Baikal EM1".
- "Folk" methods also contribute to rapid germination. - soaking in a mixture of water with ash or manure, as well as in aloe juice.
You can buy soil for "little blue" ones, or do it yourself. This will require garden land, river sand and peat.
IMPORTANT! For these plants, there is a special rule - one third of the total soil should be earth, another third - river sand. The remaining third includes the remaining components - peat, sawdust, lime, chalk, fertilizers.
To disinfect the resulting soil, it is recommended to warm it up at a temperature of +60, or pour it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, diluted with hot water.
You need to sow these plants immediately in separate cups., since the subsequent dive for them can be very dangerous.
How to sow:
- Finished land you need to water abundantly in 1 day before sowing.
- In seedling glasses we make 2 cm depressions... The distance between adjacent holes is at least 6 cm.
- Sowing grains into prepared holes and sprinkle with earth.
- Cover the filled containers with glass or foil at a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees.
- After the sprouts appear, you need to remove the coating and increase the amount of light.
ATTENTION! The first 4 days, observe the temperature regime up to 16 degrees during the day, up to 10 - at night. Further, we maintain 25 degrees during the day, 12 - at night.
Eggplants are southern plants, whimsical to temperature conditions... Therefore, after the emergence of seedlings, the amount of light should be increased, but the daytime degrees should be reduced (up to + 18). Then the roots will grow stronger.
Watering them should also be done carefully.... Before the appearance of the first leaf, 1-2 watering is required. After the appearance of the second leaf, the number of watering increases up to 2-3 times. But in no case should you pour eggplants - this is fraught with some diseases.
As for additional artificial lighting, you can turn it on for no more than 10 hours a day... Be sure to keep the room humid, use a humidifier, or place containers of water near the battery.
Before planting seedlings for a week and a half, experienced gardeners are advised to start hardening it. To do this, you can take it out to a warmed loggia or veranda. Another way is to put the cups of seedlings in the greenhouse. At night, additionally cover them with foil or acrylic in two layers.
When the seedlings have strong enough stems, at least 6 leaves and a height of at least 20 cm, you can plant them in the ground. The earth, at the same time, should warm up to 15 degrees... It is recommended to plant eggplants not on the hottest day, but better in the late afternoon, so the seedlings will root better. In the morning, it is advisable to shelter them from direct sunlight. The wells must be made 15-20 cm deep. Before planting, water the wells with water and feed with fertilizers, mullein solution works well... This crop is planted in two rows, the distance between rows is about 50 cm. It is recommended to place seedlings in one row at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other. The ground between the rows is covered with a black film to maintain the required amount of moisture.
Read other articles on growing and caring for eggplant seedlings:
- Different growing methods: in peat tablets, in a snail and even on toilet paper.
- All the features of the lunar sowing.
- The golden rules for growing from seeds.
- Features of cultivation in various regions of Russia: in the Urals, in Siberia and the Moscow region.
- How to properly transplant seedlings into open ground?
Growing "blue" is a little more difficult and troublesome than other nightshade crops. But if you follow all the rules and recommendations described above, you will get a wonderful eggplant harvest, wherever you are.