Although broccoli cabbage is not as famous as its cousins - cauliflower and white cabbage, but it is also very useful, and also has an interesting taste and low calorie content. It can be used in a variety of salads and many other dishes.
Broccoli is an annual vegetable in the cabbage family. The most common variety has dark green heads of tightly packed inflorescences and thick stems. It resembles cauliflower, but only the head is green or purple in color. Broccoli cabbage has already won the hearts and attention of fans and connoisseurs of growing edible plants at home. Consider how and when to plant broccoli, what kind of care it needs.
Features of vegetable cultivation
It is recommended to plant broccoli in the soil where previously carrots, onions, any cereals, legumes or potatoes were used.
The plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, so it is quite simple to care for it. Despite this, broccoli is very demanding on light and moisture.
Features of growing broccoli:
- Where does the vegetable grow better? According to experts, the best soil for broccoli cabbage is a mixture of turf, sand and peat. It is highly discouraged to use old land from the garden, because it can become infected with blackleg and infect the plant.
- It is better to shade the ripening heads of cabbage from direct sunlight, otherwise they will acquire an unpleasant and unkempt appearance. And on especially hot days it will be useful for plants to organize spraying of the air around.
- As mentioned above, the vegetable must be well watered. But in everything, a measure is needed, in the case of an excess of moisture, there is a risk of infection with a black leg and decomposition of the roots, and in case of a shortage, the plant heads will be tiny and lethargic.
It is not recommended to plant broccoli earlier than 4 years later in the same places.
Differences in breeding from other representatives of the cabbage family
Broccoli is often confused with cauliflower, but it differs in appearance and is considered more productive. After removing the heads in the center, a new crop is formed on the lateral shoots. For details on how broccoli differs from cauliflower, we talked here). It is better to reduce the amount of water during the formation of the heads..
Broccoli also tolerates heat and cold more easily and can be grown on any land. For the normal development of large heads, you need a minimum amount of nitrogen, a sufficient amount of phosphorus and potassium, as well as good lighting. It ripens in a shorter time, unlike other species, the heads ripen faster.
Below in the photo you can see how broccoli grows:
Where and for how much is the seed sold?
Broccoli seeds can be ordered and bought at the Semena Tut store, the price of the assortment ranges from 11 to 48 rubles. Moscow, Zvenigorodskoe highway, 9/27. Seeds are also available in St. Petersburg.
You can also order in the Internet trade center "Regmarkets", where a large assortment is presented for any choice, both in terms of price and in terms of the manufacturer. If you plan to buy in a regular store, as an option, you can look at the addresses in the search and select a suitable one nearby.
Comparison of seeds of different varieties
There are early ripening varieties of broccoli cabbage, and there are hybrids resulting from the merger of key varieties. Seeds of an early maturing variety are suitable for planting next year. The downside is that such varieties are not very productive and are not suitable for long-term storage.
Broccoli hybrids are not suitable for planting for the next harvest... But, practically not damaged by pests. Compared to early maturing, they are much more productive. The formation of fruits occurs earlier, and they can be stored longer.
|Variety||Growing medium||Ripening period (days)||Weight (gr)||Yield (kg)||Characteristics|
|Batavia F1||Open ground and greenhouse||95-102||0, 6-2||2,6||Shifts carriage|
|Vyarus||Greenhouse||65-75||0,2-0,3||2,9||Resistant to unfavorable temperatures|
|Curly head||Open ground and greenhouse||80-95||0,5-0,6||2,4-3,6||Disease resistance|
|Stromboli F1||Open ground and greenhouse||65-70||1||2,5-3||Resistance to bacteriosis|
|Jung F1||Open ground and greenhouse||60-65||0,2||1,3||High in β-carotene and vitamin C|
How to choose the best ones?
The future yield of broccoli depends on the selected seed variety. You also need to proceed from what time of the year the planting itself will be carried out.
Growing broccoli cabbage from seeds begins in the first half of March - that's when broccoli seeds are sown for seedlings.
You can sow broccoli cabbage seeds by conveyor method, at several times every two weeks until mid-June, but from the end of April, broccoli is planted in a non-seedling way directly into the ground.
There are many varieties and hybrids of broccoli, but which are the best? You can choose the right ones according to 2 important aspects.:
- Pay attention to the ripening time of the varieties. Hybrids reach the stage of readiness by 50 days, late ripening time is considered to be 140 days or more. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to opt for early ripening varieties for the conditions of the short warm season.
- For yield. From 1 square meter of planting, you can collect from 1 to 4 kg of fruits, and in some cases even 7 kg, depending on the quality and characteristics of the varieties.
When to plant and what does it depend on?
- If you are counting on harvesting in June, then you need to start sowing in the second half of March or in the first days of April.
- If the seedlings were sown in March, then they are first transplanted into the greenhouse, and then into the beds.
- April seedlings are sent immediately to the open ground.
It should be noted that the time for planting broccoli in the ground is chosen in the late afternoon, on a cloudy day.
How to grow in the country - step by step instructions
This method is simple in that you just need to plant the seeds. The largest are selected first. They are sown approximately 35 - 40 days before disembarkation in open ground. They are usually planted in boxes with soil or in a greenhouse, to a depth of about 1 cm and with a distance of 2.5 cm between the holes.
Many gardeners sprinkle a selected plot of land with ash, lime or dolomite flour before sowing to provide the necessary trace elements. And only then they dig it up. Use humus and mineral fertilizers. Some time before planting, the soil should be fertilized with compost, in the calculation - 1 bucket per 1 sq. m... The temperature of the environment in which the seeds will develop should be 20 degrees. Then the temperature can be reduced to 15 degrees, maintaining it steadily until disembarkation.
Watering is required well, but not to allow excess moisture, because this can lead to blackleg development. The first sprouts of seeds growing in the greenhouse break through after 10 days at a temperature of 10 degrees.
At temperatures above 10 degrees, the first shoots appear in 3-4 days... After 1.5-2 weeks, you can already observe 3-4 leaves. During this period, they are seated in separate containers, or straight in the greenhouse, if the temperature allows it. The depth of the holes should be about 25 cm, and the distance between plantings should be at least 40 cm.
One of the ways to transplant seedlings:
- first, prepare a bed (you need to dig up a bed, then fertilize with humus, 30-40 g for each bush);
- liming in a few weeks in order to lower the acidity of the soil;
- add compost (10 l / m2) to keep the temperature cool;
- 10 - 15 cm plants can be transplanted into the garden;
- dig holes 8 cm deep (the soil should reach the level of the leaves);
- it is worth pinching off the main root a little in order to subsequently achieve a good root system;
- at the end, pour water well.
Neutral and slightly alkaline soil is excellent. Also, the soil for sowing can be prepared as follows: mix sand with turf and peat, laying limestone on the bottom. To disinfect the soil, you need to take the following steps:
- warm up the ground a couple of weeks before sowing;
- 24 hours before sowing, to prevent black leg, water the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Planting directly into the soil
Already in May, subject to warm weather, broccoli seeds can be planted in a seedless way. The land is cultivated and prepared in the same way as indicated above. It should be planted in wet and fertilized soil. After the appearance of 2-3 leaves, you need to weed and thin out the planting, the distance between the bushes should remain about 40 cm.
How to care for crops?
Caring for broccoli primarily includes watering the plants, every day or every two days. After irrigation procedures, it is necessary to loosen the soil. To humidify the environment, you can use spraying... As the first top dressing, you can use urea, for this 2 tablespoons are added to 1 bucket, for about 15 bushes.
Two weeks later, a second feeding is carried out, you can mix manure with water (1 to 4). The third feeding is carried out when the inflorescences begin to ripen, with a superphosphate solution (also 1 tablespoon per 1 bucket).
Further care of the plant consists in:
- inspection of plants (removal of bad leaves, etc.);
- chemical treatment (for the prevention of diseases and pests);
- loosening the soil;
- watering as it dries;
- extraction of affected plants;
- airing the greenhouse.
After 3 months, when the buds are fully ripe, but have not yet opened, the central head is cut off with a part of the main stem, the length of which should be 15-20 cm.
Due to the heat, if the broccoli heads are not darkened, they quickly open and bloom... Therefore, it is recommended to harvest every 2-3 days, and during bad weather - once every 7-10 days.
The approaching harvest can be identified by decrepit inflorescences that bloom the very next day. Early harvest is suitable for storage for a relatively short time (several days), while autumn harvest is long-term.
Do not forget that some broccoli varieties also ripen the side shoots. They begin to form faster after cutting off the main ones. Therefore, you can continue to look after them and get large heads. When they grow up, they are also cut off.
Diseases and pests
- non-compliance with sowing dates (early disembarkation);
- not harvested on time;
- insufficient or lack of watering.
- high humidity, that is, excessive watering of plants;
- aspects of the weather resulting in increased humidity.
- Fungal disease, you can identify it by bloom or brown spots.
- Keela is a disease promoted by fungus. If the plant is not removed, the fungus will spread to others.
- Blackleg - as mentioned in this article, develops due to high humidity and is also a fungal disease. As a result of its development, the plant dies.
- Alternaria. A symptom of this fungal disease is black spots. It arises after heavy rains and warm weather.
- Powdery mildew. It can appear in the fall, flour-shaped bloom and star-shaped spots appear on the leaves. This may be due to fog or lack of precipitation in hot weather.
- Turnip mosaic is a viral disease that spreads such a pest as aphids. Can be identified by plant growth retardation and mosaic spots.
- Mucous bacteriosis. The cause of this disease is bacteria that simply kill the plant. Signs - leaf decay, stem softening.
- Vascular bacteriosis is the same bacterial disease. It affects all parts of the plant. It occurs due to the following factors: moisture, constant precipitation and pests. As a result, the vegetable dies.
- Belle is a fungal disease that damages the leaves and aerial parts. Likewise with black annular spot.
- Fomoz. The disease manifests itself if the seed has already been infected. Light spots and black specks capture the stems, roots, as well as cotyledonous leaves.
Read more about the beneficial properties of broccoli, as well as about contraindications to its use, and from this article you will learn about how this vegetable can be cooked.
Like all other fruits and vegetables, broccoli also needs timely care, although it is not particularly whimsical. If you follow all the requirements of cultivation and care, you can have your own mini broccoli cabbage factory at hand.
We offer you to watch a video on how broccoli is grown: