Unlike many other crops, there is practically no point in feeding potatoes during the growing season. at this time, valuable substances will no longer be sufficiently absorbed. The main thing is to choose the right fertilizer for the root crop when planting.
Potatoes are one of the most common and favorite vegetables in our country. Although it appeared in Russian gardens relatively recently (at the end of the 7th century) and did not immediately deserve the love of farmers, now it is difficult to imagine its absence. In order for the harvest of this tasty vegetable to be healthy and rich, it is necessary to apply fertilizers at different periods of the potato growing season. This article describes in detail how to properly fertilize potatoes for a good harvest.
Why is the soil fed?
This perennial tuberous plant from the Solanaceae family consumes nutrients from the soil very intensively, since its roots are not too developed, and the tubers grow large.
It is necessary both before planting, and during the growing season, and after harvesting to fertilize the soil in order to compensate the potatoes for the energy costs of growing the crop.
How and when to fertilize and with what fertilizers?
They feed the culture at different times, pursuing specific goals with each fertilization.
Fertilizers applied during the preparation of the garden for potatoes improve the germination of tubers, help the development of a powerful root system, and accelerate the growth of the plant, regardless of the nutrition of the parent tuber.
Top dressing for potatoes is needed in larger quantities than the plant can assimilate, since not all nutrients reach the bush: weeds take some of the fertilizers, some dissolve in the ground.
Top dressing for potatoes before planting is applied in autumn and spring:
- In autumn - per square meter of the plot 6 buckets of fresh manure or humus, 30–35 g of superphosphate, 15–20 g of potassium sulfate. Fresh manure will rot over the winter, superphosphate gives off nutrients rather slowly and has time to be absorbed in the soil.
- In the spring, it is necessary to remove excess moisture from the site for potatoes (by forming ridges or digging ditches for water flow along its border) and provide it with nitrogen (contained in large quantities in manure).
Spring feeding options:
- a bucket of manure, 20-30 g each of ammonium nitrate, potassium sulfate and nitrophoska;
- a bucket of manure, 50-60 g of nitrophosphate and a glass of ash;
- 10 kg of manure, 20 g each of potassium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and dolomite flour according to the instructions (depending on the acidity of the soil).
Organic fertilizers can be infected with pests, therefore, when feeding, you can do only with mineral fertilizers: in the fall - one part of double superphosphate and two parts of potassium sulfate, in the spring - 3 kg of nitroammofoska per hundred square meters.
It is very important to choose the right fertilizer when planting., since the yield depends on their quantity and quality. They must be introduced into the holes, and not throughout the entire area, then the plants will receive the maximum amount of nutrients.
Fertilizers required (amount per hole):
- rotted manure - 200–250 g, can be applied together with mineral dressings;
- chicken manure solution (prepared at the rate of 1:15, 1 liter is added to the hole);
- vegetable waste - half a liter per well, put under and on top of tubers, can be applied along with mineral dressings;
- wood ash 150-200 g, cannot be mixed with other fertilizers;
- complex mineral fertilizers - potato Kemira (15–20 g per plant), nitrophoska (20 g per well).
Fertilizing the hole: step by step instructions
You can plant potatoes by hand or using a walk-behind tractor / special planter. Tubers for planting are pre-germinated.
- They bayonet the ground with a pitchfork or Fokin's flat cutter, raising the layers of soil, but not turning them over. Water abundantly.
- They loosen the soil with a rake to a depth of 5–7 cm, leveling the surface and breaking lumps.
- Mark the area along the cord, keeping the width between the rows 70 cm.
- Make holes up to 10 cm deep at a distance of 20-30 cm.
- They lay the necessary fertilizers in the holes, add earth.
- Put in each hole a tuber, sprouts up.
- The holes are covered with earth and the surface is leveled with a rake.
After the sprouts appear and they reach a height of 20-30 cm, the potatoes are spud... In order for the procedure to bring more benefits, the plant must be fed before it.
You can use chicken droppings:
- Pour 15 parts of water over one part of the droppings.
- Let it brew for 24 hours.
- Feed 1 liter per bush after abundant watering.
Mineral fertilizer is also suitable:
- Dissolve 20 g of urea in a bucket of water.
- Pour potatoes under the root (1 L per plant).
For more information on how to feed potatoes during and after planting in the hole, read here, and in this article you will find even more recommendations for fertilizing during these periods.
Top dressing accelerates the growth of tops, adds nutrients to the soil instead of those already consumed by the plant, increases the resistance of potatoes to late blight, scab and other diseases.
During this period, you should not make nitrogen fertilizing, otherwise you can get powerful tops and small tubers.
The plant needs potassium and phosphorus before flowering.:
- 20 g of potassium sulfate, 60 g of ash per bucket of water;
- 60 g superphosphate per bucket of water.
The required amount of fertilizer is applied at the root.
Root and foliar methods
It is important to distinguish between root and foliar (by leaves) top dressing of potatoes, since they have different goals and different timing of application.
|Features of the introduction||Root||Foliar|
|Timing||During flowering and growth of tubers (summer)|
|purpose||Make the soil nutritious enough for the plant|
|disadvantages||Harder to make||Expensive|
There was enough talk about fertilization at the root at the beginning of the article, so we will dwell in more detail on the composition and features of making foliar dressings. Fertilization is carried out during active leaf growth and flowering.
Potato flowering is also the time of tuber formation. When the bushes have faded, new tubers will no longer form.
It is important to organize feeding the plant with mineral fertilizer of the following composition:
- a teaspoon of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride;
- a tablespoon of superphosphate;
- a quarter teaspoon of copper sulfate for the prevention of fungal diseases.
Apply the finished fertilizer as follows:
- All components are dissolved in warm water in an amount of 10 liters, insisted for 3 hours.
- Add another 1 L of water and pour into a spray bottle.
- Sprinkle the potatoes over the leaves.
During the period of active growth of tubers, potatoes are fertilized:
- manganese (improves the taste of potatoes);
- boron (increases the density of tubers).
It is best to use specialized granular fertilizer "Mag-Bor":
- Dissolve a tablespoon of granules in a bucket of water.
- Mix thoroughly.
- Spray the potato bush after the complete formation of leaves at the rate of 10 liters of solution per 3 m2 landings.
When making foliar dressings, it is important to follow certain rules:
- can be sprayed only in cloudy weather to avoid scalding wet leaves;
- process only grown healthy bushes, since the area of the leaf plates is larger, and the density of the leaf is less;
- feed early varieties more often, as they react more intensively to foliar feeding.
In August, the plant is fed with superphosphate (400 g per hundred square meters). It speeds up the delivery of nutrients to the tubers. The granules are evenly scattered around each potato bush, and then the plantings are watered (so that the fertilizer dissolves in the ground).
Potatoes are crops that take a lot of nutrients from the soil.... In addition, crop rotation in relation to it is most often impossible, therefore, after harvesting, it is necessary to restore the fertility of the field for future plantings. For this, green manure is planted.
Mustard is an ideal green manure for this crop. It builds up vegetative mass in just three weeks. When frosts come, the mustard sprouts will fall, and in the spring they can be laid in the ground as fertilizer.
We suggest watching a video on when and how to fertilize potatoes:
Potatoes are grown throughout our country. The composition of the soil and the climate for planting potatoes varies from area to area. Conditions are not always comfortable for culture... However, the use of fertilizers, both mineral and organic, will allow you to get a high yield in any regions where this delicious vegetable is grown.