Peking cabbage or Chinese cabbage - this is the name of the biennial vegetable crop of the Cruciferous family, mainly grown as an annual. Ripe Peking cabbage forms an oblong cylindrical head of cabbage, at the base of the leaves have a white vein, the leaves form a loose rosette.
The name of Chinese cabbage, also known as Chinese salad, is directly related to the territorial origin of this vegetable crop - China. Thanks to its high vitamin content, it plays a huge role in healthy diets around the world. This culture has a delicate taste and texture, and is more suitable for use in salads and as a vegetable side dish, rather than for conservation or heat treatment.
A brief history of breeding
Renowned in the agricultural world for innovations to improve the endurance and yield of species, Kitano Seeds introduces original vegetable hybrids to the market.
Introduced by Japanese breeders in 2015, the unusual red Peking cabbage has a deep purple hue of leaves characteristic of red cabbage and a great taste reminiscent of young white cabbage.
Red Chinese cabbage is a type of Chinese salad... Unlike the usual white-green cabbage, it is colored purple. In addition to its bright and extraordinary color, cabbage also has a rich taste, and contains twice as much vitamin C as in similar crops. The product contains a complex of vitamins and minerals, rich in protein, pectins and amino acids.
The result of successful selection also became the possibility of long-term storage of products, which increases the terms of sale of cabbage on the market.
Appearance: description and photo
Uniform, lined heads of cabbage have an elongated cylindrical shape and crunchy, corrugated leaves of a rich purple color. An average cabbage weighs 1-1.5 kilograms. Cabbage has a dense internal structure.
There are quite a few varieties of cabbage. Our experts have prepared materials about the varieties Cha Cha Cha F1 and Bilko.
Where and how much can you buy seeds?
Red Peking cabbage is grown everywhere, in 2018 in Russia the largest planting size was recorded in the Krasnodar Territory. Red Peking cabbage is represented by import firms Kitano, Sakata, Enza... They sell seeds in 5-10 pieces in one package, you can buy seeds of this culture in specialized stores and garden centers at a price of about 30 rubles.
Who and what is it used for?
The indisputable advantage of the red look is the possibility of long-term storage: heads of cabbage remain fresh and strong for 4-5 months.
For these reasons, red cabbage is actively grown by agricultural farms for further storage, processing and sale. Private rural landlords also grow red Peking cabbage, but the enemies are less common.
Farmers who do not focus on cultivating the appearance of the product are more interested in its quality, since the product reaches the table after a short period of time.
Due to long storage and cold resistance, cabbage is recommended for the second turn (that is, the seedlings are planted in the ground at the end of August). The harvest of red Peking cabbage can be grown in any climatic zone.
- Landing... Seeds for autumn planting are placed in containers lined with peat tablets at the end of August and periodically moistened with water from a spray bottle. At an optimal temperature of 20-25 C, seedlings will be noticeable in a week. Seedlings are planted in open ground or greenhouses according to a certain scheme, since an adult head of cabbage will need enough space for growth and development. A plot of land measuring 40 x 60 cm is optimal for these purposes (for growing one head of cabbage).
- Care... During the growth of Peking cabbage, abundant watering is required, from one to two times a week, the preference is given to the drip irrigation system. It is recommended to cover plantings with agrofibre or non-woven material to shade plants from the sun, to protect them from decay during prolonged precipitation and temperature extremes.
In order to avoid damage to sprouts by insects, it is necessary to treat the plants with appropriate insecticides. It is recommended to feed the plants in the early morning or late evening, when direct sunlight is excluded. For fertilization, both root and non-root, use herbal infusions, diluted bird droppings or similar mixtures.
- Cleaning... To prevent the appearance and spread of rot throughout the crop, it is recommended to cut heads in dry weather and store in open, ventilated racks without the threat of getting wet, or pack in dry and clean boxes.
- Reproduction... Red Beijing cabbage can be grown without seedlings. It is best to choose the soil for planting seeds on which cucumbers, potatoes or carrots have previously grown.
Before sowing, holes are prepared at a distance of 30 cm from each other, filled with a mixture of humus or compost with a couple of tablespoons of ash.
The soil is watered before and after planting the seeds, covered with a layer of ash and covering material. The first shoots appear in a week.
- Harvest storage... Observing all the precautions (dry and clean boxes, cool, well-ventilated storage), the cabbage is stored in a cool dry place at a temperature of 0-2 C for 4-5 months, periodically checking the leaves for signs of rot.
Analogs and similar varieties
Like any crop grown from year to year, Chinese cabbage has many subspecies and varieties. One way or another, they all have some resemblance to red Peking cabbage - some with the shape of a head, others with a delicate taste or amazing color. The main varieties can be distinguished:
- Victoria... The head of cabbage is cylindrical, elongated, the leaves are light green in color. This type is even suitable for heat treatment. Has a pleasant fresh scent.
- Orange Mandarin... Like the red "Peking", the variety surprises with its color: a pronounced orange tint in the middle of the head of cabbage. The fruits of the variety themselves are small - they weigh about 1 kg. But this species is frost-resistant and can be grown even in Siberia.
- Martha... Heads of cabbage are large, round in shape. Heads of cabbage weigh about one and a half kilograms, wide fleshy leaves taste good.
- Garnet... One of the largest varieties - the weight of a head of cabbage can reach 2.5 kg! The species is oblong, dark green leaves are tightly pressed against each other.
- Vesnyanka... It ripens the fastest - a month after sowing the seeds, small juicy heads of cabbage can be eaten.
Read about different varieties of Peking cabbage here.
Diseases and pests
During the period of development and growth, the plant can be exposed to various diseases and attacks of insects.
- In conditions of low temperatures, strong overcrowding of plants and high air humidity, the disease "black leg" manifests itself. The stem turns black and narrows, the access of nutrients to the leaves stops, and the shoot may die.
- High humidity, poor-quality soil or seeds can cause various bacterial diseases, in which the plant turns yellow, the head of cabbage decreases in size, the leaves dry out.
Important! To avoid deformations, the soil for seedlings is calcined in the oven, disinfected with special preparations, and after planting the seeds, the soil is sprinkled with ash.
- Regularly checking cabbage leaves for early brown spots and greyish deposits can keep healthy plants from spreading mold and rot. As a preventive measure, it is worth spraying the plantings with preparations with a high content of fungicides.
- Of the insects, the most dangerous for young tender plants are small bugs and fleas - they suck the juice from the leaves, which leads to a slow withering and death of cabbage.
- At any stage of growth, caterpillars are a particular threat, gnawing the surface of the leaves and provoking the formation of rot with their secretions. Deep and thorough plowing of the beds, as well as the treatment of plants with appropriate insecticides, give positive results.
In order for Peking red cabbage to grow and develop in a comfortable environment, you must carefully read the care recommendations and follow the instructions.
Traditional Chinese cabbage dish is kimchi salad... This is a dietary dish, quite spicy, consisting of sauerkraut, and primarily of Peking cabbage.
The development of a variety of red cabbage made it possible to add bright colors and originality to dishes. There are more than 100 varieties of kimchi, which differ in ingredients, cooking region, salting time, and cooking technology.
Ingredients for "kimchi":
- several heads of red Peking cabbage;
- 1 cup coarse salt;
- 2 liters of water;
- a mixture of hot pepper and garlic to taste.
- After removing the top leaves, the cabbage head must be cut lengthwise into several pieces and rinsed thoroughly.
- Put the leaves in a bowl, cover with water, add salt and leave, covered with cling film.
- When the cabbage is infused (within two days), it is important to rinse it and rub each leaf with a mixture of pepper and garlic.
- Leave the vegetable treated in this way for a day at room temperature so that the juice stands out.
- Finally, the dish needs to be kept in the refrigerator for several days for better soaking. Cut the kimchi into 3-4 cm pieces before use.
In various variations, it is allowed to add pickled onions, peeled and grated ginger, Korean carrots and other ingredients to the dish.
For a less spicy dish with a piquant twist, you can make a Peking cabbage salad with almonds.
Almond Salad Ingredients:
- 1 large carrot;
- a head of red Peking cabbage;
- 1 medium red onion;
- 2 tbsp. l. fresh ginger, diced;
- 50 g dried cranberries;
- 50 g chopped almonds;
- 2 tbsp. fried sesame seeds;
- 1 tbsp. apple cider vinegar;
- 2 tbsp. soy sauce;
- vegetable oil.
Refueling: Mix 3 tbsp. lemon juice, 1 tbsp. honey, season with salt and ground black pepper.
- Chop the cabbage finely. Grate carrots. Mix carrots and cabbage, pour over the dressing and leave for 10 minutes.
- Fry ginger and chopped red onions in a skillet in vegetable oil for 5 minutes, add almonds and cranberries, keep on fire for another 2 minutes. Add vinegar, soy sauce and simmer for 3 minutes.
- Combine the contents of the pan and the cabbage and carrot mixture, sprinkle with the sesame seeds and serve.
Experiments with Chinese cabbage should not be avoided in everyday meals - in some diets, its leaves are even used instead of bread.
Chinese cabbage is rich in protein, vitamins and minerals... Red cabbage is nutritious and very healthy. Red Beijing cabbage, in addition to everything, can serve as a bright decoration of the dish and the entire table as a whole. It plays an important role in a healthy food culture and does not require complex breeding and rearing procedures.