Among the vegetables that grow in almost every garden or summer cottage, one of the leading places is occupied by tomatoes. It's easy to grow them yourself. You just need to know the basic properties of the plant, the features of care and learn to understand the varieties and types.
Novice gardeners are often frightened by unfamiliar terms, for example, the word "determinant". Therefore, before choosing a variety for cultivation, you need to find out what such an inscription indicates and what it means. Consider the features of such tomatoes in our article. We also recommend watching a useful video on the topic.
Tomatoes have significant differences in the degree of growth and development.... They can be divided into two types:
Important: Varieties that belong to the first type are not limited to the central apex of the flower cluster, so their growth does not stop. Such tomatoes are usually grown in greenhouses, they reach a height of two meters, and sometimes more, depending on conditions, soil, care.
Determinant varieties always stop growing after the formation of an ovary with fruits at the end of the shoot... The growth of tomatoes of this type continues from the stepson, which is located in the leaf axil under the upper brush. The first flower cluster in such varieties appears after 6-7 true leaves and below, so it is easy to distinguish them from interdeterminant ones even at the seedling level. In an adult plant, brushes appear in less than 3 leaves.
These varieties have amicable ripening, do not require repeated garters, are adapted for growing in the open field, do not need constant pinching. Recommended for cultivation in various climatic zones, including in the northern regions.
Also, the standard varieties belong to the determinant varieties. Such tomatoes are distinguished by a very compact bush, which has a strong trunk and practically does not need tying and support. They do not require pickling, they do not create thickening on the site, but due to the fact that they take up little space, they allow you to get a larger harvest due to the frequency of planting.
They are widely grown on an industrial scale in the fields, because resistant to droughts, temperature extremes, cold. The fruits of standard tomatoes are well stored, during transportation they do not lose their presentation, are formed on the bush in large numbers, ripen amicably. The root system is located close to the surface, which allows the plant to better absorb nutrients and moisture.
Types and their differences
Determinant, semi-determinant and super-determinant tomato varieties: what is it and what is their feature?
- Determinant... Flower brushes, after 5-6 leaves appear, are formed every three leaves, such varieties are usually of early or medium-early ripening.
- Semi-determinant... After the formation of 10-12 flower clusters, which are laid every two true leaves, the plant stops growing, the very first cluster will be laid after 8 leaves. Well suited for growing in greenhouses, they have a fairly high growth, the ripening period is average.
- Superderminant... Flower brushes are laid after 1-2 leaves, and after 5 of them are formed, an shoot begins to appear, which will stop the growth of the entire plant, these varieties are early maturing.
Advantages and disadvantages
Growing tomatoes of this type also have their pros and cons that must be considered when choosing. Advantages of determinant varieties:
- early and very amicable ripening of fruits, which allows faster not only to eat tomatoes, but also to start making preparations in the winter;
- bushes of such tomatoes are more squat, neat, especially for standard ones;
- need little pinching;
- practically do not require a garter, mainly only when a large number of fruits are formed;
- recommended for cultivation in any climatic conditions, including in rather cold northern regions and Siberia;
- suitable not only for planting in a greenhouse, but also outdoors.
Disadvantages of these varieties:
- the size of the fruit can vary greatly;
- the overall yield is not very high; when growth is complete, the plant may stop forming new ovaries;
- need a large amount of fertilizing with mineral fertilizers;
- low resistance of plants to various infections due to the large number of ovaries.
There are a large number of such varieties of a determinant species, because this one is very popular with gardeners... They should be selected based on the climatic conditions of the planting region, soil condition and other conditions for growth. You also need to carefully study the properties of the variety and the rules for caring for it.
It is a super determinant variety, early yielding. The bush grows up to 40 cm, it does not need pinching. There are a lot of fruits, flat-round, weighing up to 80 g. Requires a garter during the ripening of the crop. Resistant to fungal and viral diseases. These tomatoes are used fresh, as well as for harvesting. It is characterized by poor keeping quality; it is not suitable for transportation and long-term fresh storage.
An early superdeterminate variety. Bush up to 50 cm tall, does not need pinching. Suitable for cold areas, grows both under film cover and in the open field. Forms a lot of fruits, weighing up to 80 g, flat-round. Tomatoes are suitable for fresh consumption and processing... Resistant to late blight and other similar diseases.
Determinant early ripening variety. The bush is semi-spreading, up to 70 cm in height, needs a garter and partial pinching. Fruits are elongated, with a thick skin, well suited for pickling and fresh consumption, weighing up to 100 grams. Virtually not prone to cracking, even with a lack of moisture. The variety is quite drought tolerant.
Watch a video about the peculiarities of Valentina tomatoes:
Early ripe. The bushes of tomatoes of this variety are spreading, need moderate pinching, but do not require a garter. Up to 50 cm high. Fruits are round, slightly flattened, up to 120 grams in weight. Good cold tolerance, recommended for northern regions... Resistant to drought and major diseases. Harvest is used fresh, for conservation. Does not lose its presentation during storage and transportation.
Watch a video about the features of the "Explosion" tomato variety:
Hybrid mid-early tomatoes. The bush is up to 90 cm tall, needs to be tied up after the appearance of a large number of fruits. Forms few stepsons. Fruit weight from 300 to 500 grams, flat-round in shape, not prone to cracking. The variety is resistant to weather fluctuations: cold, drought, sudden changes in temperature. Not susceptible to disease. Needs good care, timely fertilization.
Mid-season hybrid. The height of the bush is more than a meter, it requires a garter and partial pinching. Fruits weighing up to 200 grams, flat-rounded, resistant to cracking, very shelf-stable and transportable, retain their presentation for up to one and a half months. Heat-resistant, tolerates the lack of light, temperature changes well. Resistant to verticillosis, apical and horse rot. Not very suitable for fresh consumption due to not very pronounced taste.
Early maturing variety. The bush reaches 60 cm in height, requires tying and moderate pinching. Flat-round fruits reach a mass of 100 g, are suitable for salting and fresh consumption, not suitable for transportation and long-term storage. Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus, cladosporiosis, fusarium wilt. Well suited for cold climates.
Very early ripening variety. A bush of medium branching, reaches 50 cm in height, stepchildren are poorly formed, does not need tying. Fruits are round in shape, weighing about 80 g, have good taste, are used both fresh and for various preservation. This variety perfectly tolerates temperature extremes and cold, ovaries are formed even under unfavorable conditions.... Resistant to late blight, tobacco mosaic virus, septoria.
Attention: Determinant tomatoes are presented on the market in many varieties, which differ in some parameters, including the ripening time.
Quite popular among them:
- Ultra early: Grotto, Alenka, Altayachka, Biggie, Pink Leader, Pink Bush.
- Early ripening: Yamal, Dubok, Honey Cream, Aurora, Eternal Call, Golden Sanka.
- Mid-season: Adeline, Aisan, Watercolor, Akulina, Grandee, Yaki.
Due to the fact that determinant varieties grow well enough in the open field, are not very whimsical and have a number of other advantages, they are in great demand among vegetable growers. Even a novice gardener is able to get the desired harvest. It is only necessary to take into account the distinctive features of the variety, the climatic conditions of the planting site, the condition of the soil and carry out agrotechnical work correctly.