It is believed that gerberas symbolize joy, smile, happiness, and yellow gerberas are like the smile of the sun itself. They can be presented to both a loved one and a complete stranger.
Gerberas can be found in nature and grown by yourself at home or in the country.
From this article, you can learn the history of its origin, features of growing gerbera, caring for a plant, as well as see a photo of a flower, consider its differences from similar plants and appreciate its beauty.
Botanical description and history of origin
Yellow gerbera belongs to herbaceous perennial plants of the Asteraceae family.... She has a thick stem and feathery leaves collected in a rosette, pointed at the end, up to 20 cm in length. Inflorescences - baskets with a diameter of 5-15 cm, bright color. Has tubular median flowers.
They bloom for about 3 - 5 months, in nature this happens twice a year. The petals are velvety. The fruit of the gerbera is achene. The root system is developed, quite powerful. Peduncles are high, up to 60 cm.
In nature, it grows in the subtropics, homeland - South Africa. There the flower was discovered at the beginning of the 18th century by the botanist Gerber, hence its name. But there is also a beautiful long-standing legend of the origin of the gerbera. In ancient times, there lived a forest nymph Herba of incredible beauty, everyone envied her, haunted her. And she really wanted to become invisible and in the end turned into a simple flower.
Appearance and features
Yellow gerbera resembles a solar disk in its appearance, and the petals are the rays of the sun... But there are varieties in which the petals are yellow, and the central part of the flower is much darker, and even approaches black.
Yellow gerberas can be double (like an aster), simple (like a chamomile) and semi-double (something between an aster and a chamomile). It is not for nothing that the second name of gerbera is Transvaal chamomile. Petals are found both rounded and pointed.
Flowers in diameter can be small or large. Lives yellow gerbera 3 - 4 years. Basically, all the varieties of yellow gerberas we meet are hybrids bred by breeders (Helios, Vega, and others).
All indoor, garden gerberas descended from Jameson's gerbera and green-leaved gerbera... But only dwarf varieties with a height of no more than 30 cm are suitable for home breeding. Most often, the varieties Orangina, Sweet Caroline and Sweet Honey are grown from yellow gerberas. The yellow gerbera is preserved for a long time in the cut.
Below you will see a photo of a yellow gerbera:
Where and how to plant it?
Gerbera belongs to a group of plants that do not tolerate even small deviations from optimal care. Therefore, if a florist, and especially a beginner, cannot devote much time to this activity, gardeners with experience do not advise acquiring it.
Almost all of the yellow gerberas sold in pots in the store are from Holland.... Therefore, having bought such a flower and bringing it home, you do not need to touch and transplant it right away. Let him rest and adapt for two weeks. Then you need to carefully transplant.
- Gently remove the store soil, you can wash it off.
- You can plant a gerbera in a ready-made universal soil, be sure to use drainage.
Do not add humus and rotted compost so as not to burn the roots. In December - January, the plant is not fed.
It is better to put the transplanted gerbera on a windowsill in a room facing west or east, with moderate heating... She suits the usual room humidity, frequent ventilation. But in winter, it is recommended to insulate the pallet so as not to overcool the roots.
Important! In no case should you transplant a gerbera during the flowering period. At this time, she is very weak.
If the gerbera is poorly adapted, you can create a small greenhouse by placing it in a bag and periodically airing it.
The second time the grown yellow gerbera is transplanted, increasing the diameter of the pot by 2 - 3 cm, but still quite close. This is necessary for abundant flowering.
In summer, yellow gerbera can be planted outdoors in open ground.... But it is important not to forget that the optimal growing conditions should be close to those of the family. She does not like sudden changes in day and night temperatures. In winter - not lower than 12 C. So you can allow to grow yellow gerberas only in the south of Russia. In other regions, this is best done in greenhouses or in an apartment.
Gerberas love bright diffused light, they are moderately hygrophilous, but quite capricious.
For more information on when and how to transplant a gerbera after purchase, read here.
Lighting and location
Gerberas are light-loving plants, but they do not tolerate direct sunlight... Therefore, if a pot of flowers is on a window or balcony, in extreme heat it is better to make a small shadow. Normal daylight hours are 10 - 12 hours.
Often there is not enough natural light, then you need to add additional light, better phytolamp, it has a very good effect on the microclimate. The lamp is located above the pot about 80 cm at a slight angle.
Yellow gerbera blooms profusely when properly lit (read about why indoor gerberas may not bloom in this article). The flowering period is September - December.
Gerberas, like all plants, receive the necessary substances from the soil. Therefore, the choice of soil must be approached responsibly.
For yellow gerberas, a slightly acidic soil composition (pH - 5 - 6) is suitable. The acidity must be indicated on the label of the finished soil. You can buy universal earthen mixtures or specialized (with the addition of crushed charcoal and vermiculite).
Almost all ready-made soil mixtures are additionally enriched with nutrients... A mixture of leaf soil, sand and peat (2: 1: 1) or pure perlite is also used, but then constant feeding is necessary. Organic fertilizers for gerberas are prohibited.
At the bottom of the pot, regardless of the selected soil, it is imperative to pour drainage (about 1/4 of the pot). It is better to fertilize with mineral fertilizing in spring and summer once every two weeks, in autumn once a month, and in winter, do not feed at all.
How to take care of it properly?
Gerbera care is to create comfortable growing conditions for it.... And the main difficulty in growing is the love of gerbera for stability.
Water often, but in moderation. The plant suffers from an excess of water even more than from a lack of it. Tap water is taken, separated for at least a day. Do not pour with boiled water, there is no dissolved air in it. For watering, it is better to use a watering can with a long spout.
Attention! When watering, water should not get on the petals, leaves, and especially on the rosette of the root leaves, otherwise the gerbera roots will rot.
After watering, if the soil is crusty, it must be loosened. Better to water in the evening. The soil should always be moderately moist. It is also better to humidify the air by spraying from a spray bottle or humidifier. The normal moisture content is 70 - 80%.
Periodically, gerberas need to be fed with mineral fertilizers., but here it is also important not to overdo it and remember the golden rule of feeding about the indispensability of elements. So, when the buds are forming, the gerbera needs potassium. If there are pale spots on the leaves, you need iron.
After transplanting a gerbera, the first feeding is carried out no earlier than three weeks later with mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizers. When transplanting, it is important to disinfect the pot and use a sterilized substrate.
You can learn how to care for a gerbera in a pot here.
Watch a video on how to properly care for a plant:
Common diseases and pests
- Fungal diseases (powdery mildew, root rot). They occur mainly with excessive watering. Gerbera withers, stems turn black. A white or grayish bloom may appear on the leaves, they turn yellow, curl (why gerbera leaves can turn yellow and how to treat it, you can find out here). Systemic fungicides are used. If the soil mixture emits an unpleasant odor at the same time, you need to immediately transplant the yellow gerbera.
- Aphid infestation... The leaves turn yellow and small black dots are visible on the underside. If you spot them early, you can kill the pests by hand. At a later stage, chemicals are used against aphids.
- Spider mite... Gerbera, as it were, dries up, as small cobwebs draw out all the juice from it. In this case, you need to humidify the air around the gerbera and apply insecticides (Anti-mite). They also recommend a decoction of tomato tops, infusions of wormwood, Persian chamomile.
- Whitefly lesion... These are small caterpillars that eat holes in the leaves. Spray with preparations with peremethrin.
- Shield... It is a pest and can be seen on the underside of the leaves as brownish scales. At the early stage, it is destroyed by hand, at the later stage - by chemical preparations.
- Mosaic... Gerbera weakens, sharply outlined light spots appear. At an early stage, spray with Bordeaux liquid. A neglected disease is not cured.
You can read more about gerbera diseases here.
Watch a video showing an example of a disease on a plant:
Gerberas are propagated:
- Seeds... It is of great importance for breeders, as it allows you to grow a gerbera with the desired traits. The seeds germinate for about one month. They are planted in moist, loose soil, sprinkled with earth. Then cover with plastic wrap. Open periodically, spray with water. When small sprouts with leaves appear, transplant into pots. It takes about ten months before flowering. Not all gardeners - amateurs have enough time for this, so more often gerberas are propagated in a vegetative way.
- Cuttings... For cuttings, it is necessary to provide heating, high humidity, and use phytohormones. A small stalk with a small stem (a couple of centimeters) and leaves is cut from an adult gerbera. After planting, cover with foil, ventilate, moisten. Remove the film at the beginning of active growth.
- By dividing the bush... Free the gerbera from the ground, divide the root system into several separate ones and plant it in the ground.
More nuances about gerbera breeding can be found here.
Yellow gerbera is considered a rather capricious plant that requires the creation and maintenance of a certain microclimate. But if you wish, it is not difficult to adhere to the rules and provide comfortable conditions for the growth of such an amazingly beautiful flower, transplant it on time, treat it. In return, gerberas will delight the eye, give joy.