Cabbage is a plant from the Cruciferous genus. It can be different - red and white, Brussels, colored, Peking and other species, and in order to grow them in the country it is important to know how to do it correctly.
In this article, we will tell you how to plant a vegetable with seeds, as well as how to grow any of these plants outdoors. We will give recommendations for the care of young white cabbage, as well as demonstrate a photo. In addition, you can watch helpful and informative videos on the topic.
Features of the
Growing cabbage outdoors requires attention... Especially when the first shoots appear. During this period, the plant can be attacked by pests that can destroy the shoots in a couple of hours. There are two ways to protect the plant:
- Daily inspection. If holes are seen on the leaves, you need to sprinkle the area with ash.
- Cover the cabbage with foil. Along with this, chemical treatment can be done.
Advice: Do not forget to inspect the leaves. It is necessary to monitor the humidity of the earth.
Cabbage is a light-loving plant, so the site should not be in the shade... It is not advisable to plant it after turnips, beets, tomatoes and radishes. Sour soil is not suitable for cabbage. In this case, liming of the soil must be done. It is necessary to prepare the land for cultivation in the fall.... The soil is fertilized with humus or manure and dug up. In spring, peat and wood ash are added to the soil.
How to grow seedlings?
How to properly grow, for example, white cabbage in order to plant it in the country and the harvest was good? At home, seedlings are germinated, and then transplanted into greenhouses... When grown outdoors, the sprouts are planted in open soil. You must first prepare the inventory. You will need containers for soaking the seeds, a spatula, gloves, and a watering can.
Seed preparation and germination
If the seeds were collected on their own, they are first kept for no more than 20 minutes in hot water, the temperature of which is approximately 50 degrees. Then they are placed in cold water for a few minutes and dried. For purchased seeds, preliminary preparation is not necessary, it is carried out by manufacturers.
For germination of seeds, loose soil with a large admixture of peat is used. Moderate watering is required. You need to use additional lighting. The room in which the seeds are located must be ventilated.
Cabbage will grow slowly in the first two weeks.... The first leaves will appear in a month and a half.
You can sow seeds in boxes or special peat pots. They begin to grow seedlings in the last days of March. Sowing is carried out with large seeds. This will increase yields.
We recommend watching a video about growing cabbage seedlings from seeds:
Planting in a vegetable garden
When to plant seedlings? You can only plant seedlings that have become stronger, which have a dark green color.... The planting scheme is not complicated - the holes for the seedlings should be at a distance of 60 cm. They are pre-watered and fertilized with wood ash mixed with the ground. Then watered again.
Disembarkation is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening. When planting, the plant is buried in the ground to the first true leaf. The roots and stem are well compressed with soil.
After planting, it is advisable to shade the seedlings for 3 days.so that it takes root better.
We recommend watching a video about planting cabbage seedlings in open ground:
Young vegetable care
- Watering... Cabbage is watered every day - in the morning and in the evening with water at a temperature of 18 degrees, not allowing it to dry out. The intensity is adjusted depending on the weather.
- Top dressing... Two weeks after planting the seedlings, it is fed with phosphate fertilizers. Chicken droppings and manure can be used. Two weeks later, another feeding with the same components is carried out. Further fertilization is carried out as needed.
- Hilling... To carry out hilling, you need a hand hoe or a hoe. At a distance of 20 - 25 cm from the seedling, they scoop up the earth to the stem in a circle. It is impossible to fill up the growth point. Using this method, they fight the cabbage fly. Hilling is usually carried out 40 days after transplanting. Further hilling is carried out every two weeks, and ends when the cabbage spreads its leaves.
Mulching - covering the ground with a protective layer. Benefits of the procedure:
- reducing the frequency of watering;
- elimination of weeds;
- the soil is kept loose;
- protection of the soil from washing out the top layer during heavy rain;
- the soil is enriched with nutrients.
Before mulching, weeds are removed and the soil is loosened... Do not lay mulch on cold ground. The layer thickness is 2 - 8 cm, depending on the material. The cheapest way is to use different plants and their remains.
Mulching is carried out using the following plants:
- Rye is perfect. When the cabbage grows up, the rye is cut off, and the resulting straw is left on the soil surface. When decomposing, the straw will feed the cabbage with nitrogenous compounds.
- Nettles, grass cuttings, hay, straw.
- Sawdust. This material negatively affects the pathogenic flora.
- Peat and compost. Compost also serves as fertilizer.
There is such a thing as inorganic mulching.... To do this, use plastic wrap: transparent or black. The choice of material depends on the season. The black film is used at the beginning of planting, it is left for 3 to 4 weeks. Transparencies are chosen in the summer. As a result, weeds will not appear in the garden.
Harvesting and storage
Important: Harvesting is done as the cabbage matures. The main thing is not to allow cracking. If late varieties are sown, they can be left until the first frost.
White cabbage is harvested in dry warm weather. If the crop was harvested during the rain, it must be dried and sent for storage.
The harvested heads of cabbage can be stored in the following ways:
- Hanging in the basement... The store is pre-cooled to 0–1 degrees and must be ventilated.
- Growing... Plants are transferred to the basement and placed in boxes or simply on the floor, covered with earth, sand or peat. The "soil" is moistened for two months. The temperature is kept within three degrees. This method will allow the heads of cabbage to get stronger and gain weight.
- Storage in pits or trenches... Straw is placed at the bottom of the storage, and then cabbage heads. The crop is harvested before the ground freezes. This storage method allows you to keep the cabbage fresh for three months.
We recommend watching a video about harvesting and storing cabbage:
Diseases and pests
Unfortunately, cabbage, like all vegetable crops, is affected by a large number of pests and diseases that require special control measures.
The most common pests:
- Cruciferous fleas... Cabbage leaves are affected. They can also damage the growth point, which leads to the death of the plant. The larvae are light yellow in color.
Control methods: spraying seedlings with insecticides. When a pest appears massively, pollination is carried out with tobacco dust with ash in a ratio of 1 to 1. The processing interval is 4 days.
- Cabbage moth... Caterpillars mine leaves, leaving the epidermis of the upper side of the leaf intact in the form of a "window". Often they damage the growing point and the forming head of cabbage, entwining it with cobwebs. They cause great harm during the dry season.
Control methods: treated with chemical or biological products.
- Cabbage white... The favorable period for the appearance of the pest is the hot and dry season. Damages the leaf plate and the insides of the heads of cabbage. Caterpillars are green with a yellow stripe along the back.
Control methods: the same as when the cabbage moth appears.
- Cabbage scoop... Causes significant damage to the crop. It affects leaves and heads of cabbage, making deep passages in them.
- Cabbage fly... Damage to the roots.
Control methods: processing of marginal strips of fields with tobacco dust with slaked lime or ash.
- Stem Lurker... Damages seedlings. Leaves and stems suffer.
Control methods: insecticide treatment.
- Cabbage aphid... When a mass appears, the leaves are covered with aphids, which suck the sap from the plants. The head of cabbage is not formed.
Control methods: weed control, insecticide spraying.
Cabbage can be affected by all types of plant diseases caused by fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens.
- The most common disease is blackleg... The root collar is affected. The seedlings dry up.
- Keela cabbage... Fungal disease as a result of which growths appear on the roots. Heads of cabbage are not formed.
- Downy mildew... Yellow spots appear on the affected leaves.
- Alternaria... First, black spots appear on the leaves, and then they are covered with bloom.
- Bacteriosis or black rot most dangerous for cabbage. Small dark spots appear on the leaves.
We recommend watching a video about cabbage diseases and how to deal with them:
When growing cabbage, many problems can arise. However, this should not be intimidating. With some knowledge, you can get a big harvest.