Gloxinia is a plant belonging to the genus Gesneriaceae, growing such a flower is a rather painstaking process, during which some difficulties may arise, because it is a rather capricious indoor flower. But if you pay enough attention to her, then she is able to decorate any room with her bright flowers.
In the article, you will read about the features of the plant, learn about different methods of reproduction, about the rules of care, as well as about various diseases and pests that affect gloxinia if kept incorrectly.
One of the main features of this plant is its sensitivity to light, which directly affects the growing conditions. The delicate leaves of Gloxinia will burn almost instantly if placed in direct sunlight. Therefore, the most optimal lighting for the successful cultivation of this indoor flower is artificial or as scattered as possible.
Gloxinia is also susceptible to excess moisture in the substrate: if you do not provide good drainage at the bottom of the pot, then this is fraught with gradual wilting of the plant.
Gloxinia has five breeding methods, and each of them can be used only with a certain state of the indoor flower and the time it takes for the plant to take root. So, let's take a closer look at the methods of flower cultivation, as well as all the rules and subtleties of the gloxinia breeding process.
Gardeners use cuttings of gloxinia during the period of bud formation, since during flowering, while only healthy green leaves should be used, the stalk of which reaches 3 - 4 cm.
- It is necessary to carefully separate the leaf from the plant with a sharp blade or scissors and place it for 1 - 3 weeks (during this time period, roots will appear) in a container with water at room temperature.
- And only after that it is transplanted into a prepared soil or peat tablet and placed in a plastic bag for 1.5 - 2 months, i.e. until small daughter leaves appear from the leaf.
It is not necessary to water the leaf in a plastic bag, just place it in the lightest place under the scattered sunlight.
If you divide the whole leaf of gloxinia into parts, then you can get daughter processes, but they will already be slightly smaller than in the first method.
- To do this, you need to select the largest leaf of the plant and divide it along the veins into several parts with a sharp blade, and then place each fragment in a separate container, where the moistened soil is prepared in advance.
- The leaf sinks a little into the ground, and the rest is pressed tightly against it.
- Next, the container is closed with cellophane and placed in a place illuminated by bright diffused sunlight.
Watering and airing are not performed, i.e. the mother's leaf should be at rest for 2 months. As soon as the shoots appear, the withered mother leaf can be removed.
Read more about rooting a gloxinia leaf in this material, and here you will find detailed instructions and tips on how to do it correctly.
This is one of the simplest breeding methods, carried out at the beginning of March, when the flowering period begins for gloxinia.
- The soil in which the seeds will be placed can either be calcined or treated with a potassium permanganate solution to disinfect it.
- After that, seeds are planted in a loose substrate at a short distance from each other and covered with a dense transparent cover or cellophane to create a mini-greenhouse.
- In a warm, well and correctly lit place, the first shoots will appear in 1.5 - 2 weeks.
- And after 1 - 1.5 months, you can plant each sprout in a separate pot.
More nuances about growing gloxinia from seeds can be found in this article.
The method is almost identical to the previous two, and it is used during the flowering period of gloxinia.
- A peduncle, carefully separated from the plant, is placed in a container filled with water at room temperature by 1 cm, the length of which should not be more than 3 - 4 cm.
- A glass with it is also covered with cellophane or glass.
- As soon as daughter shoots appear from the peduncle, and this will happen no earlier than 1 month later, they are planted in separate pots with a substrate for adult plants.
You can learn more about choosing a pot here.
When propagating with tubers, you need to be extremely careful, because in the event of one wrong action or movement, everything can be ruined. Reproduction is done immediately after the dormant period, when sprouts appear on the tuber.
- With a sharp disinfected knife, the tuber is divided into parts so that each of them has at least one healthy sprout.
- Places of cuts are processed with charcoal crumbs, after which they are planted in separate containers, placed in a correctly lit place.
- It is advisable to irrigate through the pallet with a small amount of water, because a split tuber is especially susceptible to excess moisture in the substrate.
Transplanting into a large pot is done only when the sprouted roots are completely encircled by an earthen ball, so it is better to use disposable transparent cups initially to see this process.
How to properly grow and care at home?
As mentioned earlier, gloxinia is a rather finicky houseplant, and you need to try to ensure that all conditions favorable for its cultivation are met as accurately as possible.
One of the most decisive factors in the health of a plant: a lack of lighting will cause its leaves to stretch, thereby trying to reach light and assume an upright position, which is not the norm; and an excess of light will lead to yellowing of the leaves and early wilting.
The light must be diffused, otherwise, the leaves will get burned and take on an unpleasant appearance.
If the leaves have a rich green or dark green color, the flowers in the outlet are directed vertically, then the lighting is chosen correctly.
Temperature and humidity
Everything is extremely simple here, because gloxinia will "notify" that it does not like something: if its leaves go down, the plant suffers from the cold and needs watering, if they take an upright position, then it experiences overheating.
The optimum temperature is 18 - 20 degrees. It is almost insensitive to humidity and therefore easily tolerates the usual room humidity level. But he categorically does not tolerate drafts.
Watering is done regularly from above or through a pallet. The main thing is that moisture does not get on the leaves. From the end of October to the beginning of March, you need to water less often. the plant has a dormant period. Before watering, you need to make sure that the upper earthen layer is dry, otherwise there will be an excess of moisture, followed by rapid rotting of the tuber and wilting of the leaves. It is also impossible to overdry gloxinia, otherwise the leaves will begin to turn yellow and dry.
Top dressing is done once every 10 days, while mineral and organic fertilizers alternate. The plant stops fertilizing at the end of August and begins only in March, when it is fully awake, i.e. came out of the dormant period.
It doesn't matter if it is young or a perennial plant, the following substrate composition is suitable for transplanting and growing gloxinia:
- Sod land - 1 hour
- Leafy ground - 2 tsp
- Humus - 1 tsp
- Coarse sand - 1 tsp
Read about how to properly prepare the soil here.
Diseases and pests
- Tuber decay... One of the most common problems is tuber decay, and in order to fix this, you need to pull it out of the soil, rinse it, cut out the affected areas with a clean sharp knife, sprinkle the cut with charcoal crumbs, hold it in the air for a day to dry it, and transplant it into a new substrate.
- Brown spots and gray fluffy bloom... These transformations on the leaves and the stem indicate gray rot, which can be removed by cutting off the infected leaves and spraying the plant several times with a period of 7 days with oxychom, copper oxychloride or cuproxate.
- The onset of rotting buds... Rotting can be caused by excessive watering or too acidic substrate, replacing which, you can quickly save the gloxinia buds. More details about problems with buds can be found here.
- The formed mildewy white coating on the leaves... Education is late blight, which is the most dangerous disease caused by dense soil, in which moisture stagnates, sudden changes in temperature and very high humidity.
It will not be possible to cure late blight immediately, this can only be done by periodic spraying with drugs such as cuprozan, zineb, polymarcin, captan. This disease manifests itself intermittently for many years.
- Small white strokes on the leaves and stem of the plant... These manifestations are the consequences of an attack by thrips pests. Isolation of the plant will help to get rid of them in order to protect others, and its treatment with any insecticidal preparation.
More information on gloxinia leaf diseases can be found here, and other common ailments, plant pests and treatments are covered in this article.
Growing gloxinia is a very time consuming process that requires a lot of patience. But providing favorable conditions will reward you with the aesthetic appearance of this indoor plant, and otherwise it will get sick and die if you do not take certain measures in time.