Probably, every seasoned summer resident tried to grow high-quality winter garlic, but not everyone succeeds. If you still find the right approach, then growing a large, strong and pungent garlic will not be difficult.
Therefore, it is worth looking for this very approach and learning how to grow this useful crop using successful agricultural techniques. In the article, you will learn everything you need to know about this culture: how and in what time frame to plant it, how to properly care for it. You can also watch a useful video on this topic.
What it is?
Winter garlic - what kind of garlic is it? It is planted in autumn, closer to winter, yields a harvest at the end of summer. Since garlic is found in the soil throughout the winter, it is called winter garlic. Properly grown winter garlic as a result grows large with dense tough "scales", in contrast to the soft and thin husk of spring garlic, which is planted in spring.
In the bulb of winter garlic, the cloves are large and even, but there are not very many of them, most often there is an even number in the head, the cloves of spring garlic are small and uneven. Also, a distinctive feature of winter garlic from spring garlic are edible feathers and arrows with seeds, which are released by garlic planted in autumn, the exception is the spring variety "Gulliver", which can also throw arrows.
Important: We must not forget that you can grow garlic in the same place for no more than three years in a row.
At the moment, there are a large number of different varieties of garlic, but among them the best ones can be distinguished:
- "Garqua" - a variety that has a color with pinkish or purple hues, a distinguishing feature from other varieties of winter garlic is the small cloves, of which there are a large number of heads. The amount of garlic harvest can be increased by planting pea bushes between the rows, this plant will saturate the soil with nitrogen.
- "Harpek" - the garlic brought from Spain differs from other varieties in its large size. The number of cloves in the bulb is average and they are quite juicy. The flesh of the clove is neither flesh, nor strong pungency, nor a pungent odor.
- "Komsomolets" - a special type of garlic, which can be both spring and winter, depending on the time of planting the culture. The pulp of garlic is pungent and has a pungent odor. The bulb itself is large. The species is not afraid of either high or low temperatures.
- "Alcor" - a variety bred in Russia, the harvest "Alkor" brings almost more than all other varieties. The pulp does not have a particular pungency and pungent smell. The bulbs are large enough, the cloves are also few and far between. Do not plant heads of garlic close to garden trees and bushes.
- "Messidor" - a head of garlic of this variety with a pink tint. The variety is hardy and early maturing, but prefers a lot of light when grown.
- "Sail" - frost-resistant and early maturing variety. The peculiarity of this garlic is that it does not throw arrows. The denticles are dense and have a pungent odor.
Learn about the best varieties of spring garlic, as well as recommendations for growing and caring for this vegetable, here.
Step-by-step instructions for growing
- You need to start planting garlic 2-3 weeks before the onset of frost, usually somewhere in October - early November (depending on the climate), the main thing is that after planting there is no thaw, otherwise it is fraught with germination of the roots and feathers of garlic before winter, and hence a bad harvest.
- The planting depth is selected depending on the region, the lower the temperature regime of winter in the region, the deeper it is necessary to dig in the planting, also, the amount of snow in winter has a strong influence. The optimum depth is about 5-10 cm. The distance between the rows should be 20-25 cm.
- Choosing a landing site is a very important part. The territory should be well lit, the soil should be neutral acidic, the planting site should be located on a hill and not have the possibility of flooding the plantings. When planting, you need to add a little humus and ash; you cannot add manure when planting this culture.
- After all the preparatory work, a choice follows - to plant a large clove in order to grow a full-fledged head of garlic by the summer, or to plant bulbs (the so-called boxes with garlic seeds, they grow on the arrows), but in this case, the cultivation of a finished large onion will stretch for 2 , or even 3 seasons.
It depends on the size and development of the bulb. Most often, the longer growing method is chosen by amateur gardeners, for whom it is important to preserve the qualities of a certain variety, or some choose this path as an experiment.
- For planting in the soil, it is worth choosing larger cloves, since a larger head will grow from them, but if you leave large specimens for food, and leave small ones for planting, then gradually your crop completely grinds.
Growing conditions for garlic:
- Winter garlic practically does not require watering, since it has enough moisture from precipitation, unless the weather is too dry.
- It is systematically necessary to loosen the soil by 4-5 cm, or weed with a hoe to loosen the soil and remove weeds.
- Also, you need to carry out mulching. First you need to lightly sprinkle with hay, and then pour the foliage more densely, sprinkle on top with another small layer of hay. You should not worry about garlic when the snow melts, the plant will easily make its way to the light after being under the mulch.
- The first dressing of garlic should be done in early spring, when the snow melts. How to feed at this time? A solution of ammonium nitrate or a weekly infusion of chicken manure is suitable. The second feeding should be done in mid-May. Spring feeding is carried out with a mixture of potassium salt, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate. For the third time, the garlic needs to be fed at the end of June with mullein infusion.
We recommend watching a video about planting and growing rules for winter garlic:
Harvesting and storage of crops
Garlic harvest ripens around late June - early August... The exact timing is determined by the timing of the appearance of garlic leaves, the collection should be carried out approximately 100 days after their appearance. In addition, full maturation is determined by the following characteristics:
- The leaves begin to soften and turn yellow.
- The scales on the head of the garlic become dry and thin.
- There is a softening of the neck.
To be sure, you can get a few bulbs and check their ripeness. When the bulbs are ripe, you need to dig them all out, then separate the feathers and stems, and put the heads of garlic to dry. Next, you need to prepare the garlic for storage, this is done in various ways:
- In a cloth bag, sprinkled with salt, onion husks or flour.
- Fill the whole head with garlic cloves or paraffin with vegetable oil.
- Braiding in special pigtails (for this method, you do not need to pick off the stems and leaves).
- In a box, mesh or nylon tights.
For storage, you need to select only high-quality garlic, without mechanical damage and rotting... The set aside garlic must be dried for a month, then peeled from the uppermost scales, cut off the stem at a height of 5 cm or less, it is advisable to pull out the roots or burn them out over a gas stove.
Advice: Then the processed specimens must be treated with vegetable oil boiled for two hours with the addition of a couple of drops of iodine, then again dry all the heads and put them in the pantry or in the refrigerator.
We recommend watching a video about harvesting winter garlic and storing it:
Growing winter garlic usually isn't a problem, even for novice gardeners., more incidents arise when storing the resulting crop. The main problems in growing are the wrongly chosen planting site, and subsequently the minimum yield, or its complete absence, diseases and pests.
During storage, problems arise such as decay, susceptibility to disease, etc. All these problems can be easily solved, the main thing is to be careful, diligent and follow all the rules and tips presented in the article above.
There are many possible diseases of garlic, but with proper care, it is almost impossible to get infected with them. Possible diseases of this plant:
- Cervical rot garlic - a disease that most often affects the crop during transportation or storage, arises from last year's leftovers. It begins to appear at the base of the leaves with white spots with green borders, then the spots spread to the teeth and affect the entire head. It can be avoided with proper handling, transportation and storage. Also, you need to promptly remove the remnants of past crops.
- Rust - the most common and dangerous disease for garlic. It begins to appear on the leaves with yellow spots, gradually expanding, and subsequently inhibits the growth and development of the entire crop. To avoid sowing materials, you need to treat with formalin, and the soil must be treated with special store-bought chemicals.
- Fusarium - a disease that occurs in warm regions. It is manifested by the rapid drying of the leaves, then the stems are covered with brown stripes, and then the head itself begins to be damaged and the plant dies from rot. Avoid using fungicide treatments, as well as the right choice of seed, soil and water for irrigation.
We recommend watching a video about diseases of winter garlic and methods of combating them:
There are few pests in garlic and it is very rarely attacked, pests include:
- Root mite
- Garlic four-legged mite.
- Onion fly.
Attention: The most effective methods of controlling all pests are special treatment chemicals available from your garden store.
Growing winter garlic is not very difficult., however, in the early stages, everyone may have certain difficulties. Using our advice, you can easily get around every problem and grow really good garlic, take proper care in the spring. It remains to wish you good luck in this business and a good harvest!