You can grow garlic in two ways: spring and winter. Spring garlic contains more nutrients, although the cloves are smaller.
Experienced gardeners advise you to plant this species in your garden. When and how to plant spring garlic correctly, you will find out in our article.
We will introduce you to its best varieties and their features. We will tell you how to properly care for a vegetable in the beds, how to store it and what difficulties you can face when growing it. You can also watch a useful video on this topic.
What it is?
Spring garlic is a frost-resistant perennial plant of the lily family.... It has a complex ovoid bulb that is shrouded in several dry films. The bulb itself consists of cloves (the so-called seeds), also covered with films. Garlic has tough, narrow leaves and a straight stem.
White or purple flowers are collected in inflorescences - an umbrella, in which small 3 mm bulbs develop. The plant has a specific smell. Spring garlic is called spring garlic because it is planted in spring after the soil thaws.
This is the first difference from the winter crop, which is planted in September-October. In spring varieties, the number of cloves is larger and they are located chaotically. This garlic has no trunk in the middle.
Spring garlic has a soft stump with a small thickness, in winter it is hard and thick... Winter varieties withstand frosts of -20 ° C, spring varieties have low frost resistance. We talked in more detail about the differences between winter garlic and spring garlic in a separate article.
The best varieties
All varieties of spring garlic bred to date stand out for their good tolerance to spring frosts. There are many varieties of spring garlic that gardeners love to grow. These include:
Let's consider the features of each of the varieties.
There are usually 15 cloves in one head of the Abrek variety., which are formed into a flattened-rounded bulb weighing 30 g. It is covered with white dry scales. The flesh is firm, white and pungent in taste.
The Abrek variety is considered the best due to its high yield up to 1 kg / m2 and long-term storage up to 7 months. In many ways, Aleisky garlic is reputed to be the best because of its resistance to sudden temperature changes.
The elite mid-season variety Kledor has a head with a diameter of 5-6 cm, which contains about 20 cloves. They are arranged in a spiral. The pulp of garlic is white-creamy, dense structure, mildly spicy taste... This variety lays well, keeps well and has excellent taste.
Important: Kledor variety is very resistant to bacterial and fungal diseases.
The shape of the bulb of Yelenovsky garlic is round-flat or round... Weighs 30-40 g. It usually contains 25 pieces of creamy pink peninsular teeth. The shelf life can be up to 2 years. The variety has a high yield from 1 ha - up to 3.7 tons of bulbs.
With proper care, Aleisky garlic gives a good harvest. The heads are dense, weighing up to 35 g, bitter to taste. The average contains 19 pieces. Differs in good preservation, but not resistant to fusarium and bacterial rot.
Victorio garlic has a moderately pungent taste and yellowish-white, firm bulbs... Their weight reaches 40 g, they contain from 10 to 13 cloves. Garlic has an excellent shelf life for 8 months. Advantages - high yield and disease resistance.
The Ershovsky variety has small snow-white heads, which contain from 18 to 25 semi-sharp teeth. This garlic stands out:
- high yield;
- excellent immunity to diseases;
- versatility in application.
Growing agrotechnics: step by step instructions
How to grow a good harvest of large garlic? To do this, you must adhere to the rules for growing.
Spring varieties reproduce only by teeth... You need to take teeth:
- large, weighing 3-6 grams or more;
When planting, they do not need to be peeled off. When grown in open ground, it is not recommended for planting to take cloves from the head, in which there are 2-3 pieces of them, such garlic is considered degenerate. Experienced gardeners advise to disinfect the planting material in a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate 12 hours before planting.
Before planting, the ground must be leveled, loosened, and furrows 3-4 cm deep must be made. The teeth are planted with the bottoms down, you do not need to press them... The distance between large specimens should be 10-12 cm, medium - 8 cm. Sprinkle the garlic with earth on top, lightly tamp it.
Water and be sure to mulch. To do this, you can take straw or sawdust. Many people use a layer of peat, humus or rotted compost. The thickness of the mulching layer is 2-3 cm.
Experienced gardeners sometimes try to plant spring garlic with bulbs collected from winter varieties., selecting the best quality for this. These are given by the largest plants. When the little covers on the bulbs crack, they are completely removed from the garden bed and hung to dry. After 3-4 weeks, when the leaves are dry, the heads with bulbs are carefully removed from the stem. Store at room temperature.
1-1.5 months before planting, they are sorted out, wrapped in paper, put in a bag and put into the refrigerator. This process is called vernalization. If this is not done, then small unripe bulbs will grow from them.
Advice: it is not recommended to plant garlic next to onions, because these crops are affected by the same diseases.
We recommend watching a video about planting spring garlic:
When growing this garlic outdoors, it must be provided with the necessary care.... The land must be constantly loosened, weeds removed, so that water and nutrients can reach the roots faster. Water abundantly when growing greenery, namely in the first phase of development. In the second half, the soil needs moderate watering, otherwise the garlic will rot or get sick. The next day, after watering or rain, the bed must be loosened.
The introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers helps to accumulate the nutrients needed by garlic. After the shoots appear, nitrogen fertilizers are used, and when the feather grows to 6-10 cm, you can fertilize:
- mullein diluted in water 1:10;
- urea - 1 tbsp. l. for 10 liters of water;
- diluted bird droppings 1:12;
- ammonium nitrate 15 grams per 10 liters of water.
During the summer, garlic should be fed 2-4 times with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.... Mulching garlic in early spring creates excellent conditions for its growth and development. The main thing is that the mulch is light.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Garlic is considered ripe if its lower leaves begin to slope to the ground and dry out, and the upper leaves turn yellow. They remove it when the weather is dry and sunny. It is best to dig with a small pitchfork.
The garlic should be dried for 10-15 days in a special place under a canopy. Do not let the sun and rain hit it. You do not need to cut off the leaves and roots right away. Do this after drying. After the garlic is dry, it is sorted out, separating the rotten.
The crop should be divided into small, medium and large garlic. They are stored in:
- wooden boxes;
- mesh bags;
- cardboard boxes;
- plastic pallets.
The yield of garlic depends on the selected variety, which is most suitable for the climatic conditions.and also from:
- compliance with the main agricultural growing conditions;
- taking measures to prepare for planting;
- the quality of the land and the fertilizers used.
It is noted that the yield depends on what size the garlic cloves were planted, if the variety was correctly selected, all planting and care conditions were met, then the average yield from 1 hectare reaches 5-15 tons, from 1 hundred parts - 50-150 kg.
We recommend watching a video about harvesting and storing spring garlic:
Possible growing problems
It must be borne in mind that spring garlic cannot adapt well to other environmental conditions... Therefore, it is advised to grow those varieties that are adapted exclusively to local conditions.
Another problem is the possibility of damage by fungal diseases, which means that it is necessary to carry out preventive measures. They consist in pickling the cloves with fungicides, providing ventilation for growing plants.
Important: stem nematode can cause great damage to garlic plantings. It dries up due to the fact that the worms feed on its juice.
All about diseases and pests
Like all garden crops, spring garlic is susceptible to various diseases.... The most common are:
- neck rot;
- green mold;
- yellow dwarfism.
The causative agent of cervical rot in the head tissue mainly penetrates through various mechanical damage. Immediately, the disease is imperceptible, signs appear at the beginning of storage, more often in September. Measures to combat this ailment are to dry the garlic in the sun before laying it. When trimming the head, be sure to leave a neck of 3-6 cm.
Bacteriosis also occurs during storage... On the diseased heads, grooves or sores are visible that go up from the bottom. The bulbs take on a pearlescent yellow color. The reason may lie in a violation of storage conditions or improper preparation of garlic before planting.
Green mold attacks the tissues of the teeth, which become soft. They are covered first with white and then green bloom.
The main sign of yellow dwarfism is that the leaves and peduncles of the plant begin to turn yellow... The garlic looks very small. Aphid can transmit this disease.
Garlic can be damaged by pests such as:
- onion fly;
- onion sharpener;
- onion leaf beetle.
To combat them, pesticides are used.
Want to know more about the varieties of garlic? Read our articles on Wild, Chinese and Black.
Since there are many varieties of spring garlic, it is necessary to choose based on climatic features, location, conditions of a particular site and soil. Experienced gardeners advise not to be limited to 1-2 varieties... It is best to plant a few in your garden, and then dwell on the variety you like.