Garlic is a perennial plant in the Amaryllidaceae family. Due to its pungent taste, spicy smell and a host of beneficial qualities, this vegetable crop is popular almost everywhere.
It is often used in medicine as an antiseptic. Garlic is often used as a remedy for parasites, not only for adults, but also for children.
The importance of good care
Garlic is an unpretentious plant, but it needs proper care. The yield of garlic depends on this: with proper care, it will be quite high - up to 300 kg from one hundred square meters per season (depending on the variety of garlic). Also, the quality of care affects the storage time of the harvested crop, which is especially important when growing garlic for sale.
Improper care can lead to a deterioration in the quality of the final product - the heads (garlic bulbs) can be small and unevenly filled, hollow, flaccid and yellow cloves. Improper care of the plant will make it more vulnerable to various diseases and pests.
Features of the
Unlike some other vegetables, garlic is uncomfortable in acidified soil, so its acidity is artificially lowered. Fresh organic fertilizers are contraindicated for the plant - their use can lead to damage to the bulb by a fungus, inhibition of its development. Garlic is moisture-loving: it needs abundant and regular watering. It tolerates cultivation in open areas under the sun's rays.
- Mulching - Covering the garlic at the base of the stem with straw, wilted grasses or compost. It is used as a natural fertilizer and to prevent moisture from evaporating too quickly. It allows you to slow down the growth of weeds. In the rainy season, mulching is not performed.
- Hilling - the process of shoveling soil around the stem, up to about a third of its height. This will speed up the ripening process of the heads, allow moisture to stay in the soil longer, and protect the garlic from freezing in winter.
- Watering. The most abundant hydration is necessary for garlic during the period of bulb formation. In summer, the plant is watered every 7-10 days, during periods of drought - once every 5 days. In rainy times, watering should be stopped. Garlic is not watered in winter.
- Fertilizer - additional feeding. For garlic, top dressing is combined with watering. For the entire vegetative period, fertilizers are applied no more than three times. They are additionally fed before and after winter (applies to winter garlic).
- Antiparasitic treatment - the procedure for protecting the plant from pests. Special agents are used both as a preventive measure and in the case of an obvious parasite infection of garlic.
Watering is stopped about three weeks before harvest.
- Temperature. Planting is carried out at low temperatures, and for cultivation the optimal thermometer readings are 23-28 degrees Celsius. However, garlic tolerates heat with proper watering.
- The soil for cultivation it should be light, with a neutral acidity index. If the soil is acidic, dolomite flour or lime is added to it, which helps to reduce acidity.
- Lighting. Garlic prefers an open area, direct sunlight does not pose a great danger to it (but do not forget about watering and mulching). But when grown in the shade, the productive heads will turn out to be small. The most suitable light balance for a garlic planting site is partial shade.
How to care?
Garlic is often grown for its leaves. When growing at home, garden soil can only act as the basis of the substrate, since watering in a pot will make it too dense and wash out the nutrients. Sand and peat are suitable as additional components for the soil mixture.
It is helpful to add wood ash. You can buy ready-made seedling potting mix at the store and enrich it with fertilizer for garlic and onions. The depth of the planting pot is at least 20-25 cm. The distance between the teeth is 4-5 cm, while in open ground it should be at least 15 cm.
If there is a lack of sunlight, fluorescent lighting can be used. Watering should be done at least once every 3 days. Unlike garlic in the garden, homemade needs nitrogen dressing. The optimum temperature for growing is 16-20 degrees.
In the greenhouse
The soil should be more nutritious and fertile than in the garden; before planting garlic, it is worth adding mineral and organic fertilizers to it. In greenhouse cultivation, it is easier to control moisture levels and temperature readings. You will have to loosen the soil more often: it is compressed faster in the greenhouse. Mulching is optional, garlic is watered in the same way as in the open field, but a little less often. In winter, greenhouse garlic may well continue its active existence, therefore, caring for him at this time does not stop.
How to take care of the season?
In autumn, winter garlic is planted.
Planting is done in early or mid-October. If the garlic is grown in a greenhouse, you should only reduce the frequency of watering and spud the plant, otherwise, continue to care in accordance with the stage of development of the garlic.
- Go through the cloves intended for sowing.
- Disinfect the seed.
- Choose an open, unshaded place. Make sure it is protected from strong drafts.
- Plant the cloves into the prepared grooves to a depth of 12-15 cm, with an interval of 15-20 cm (it is recommended to water the grooves beforehand).
- Sprinkle the earth over the garlic and smooth it out.
- Mulch the beds with sawdust, straw or peat.
- Cover with dry twigs (to keep out birds).
We offer you to watch a video on how to properly plant and care for garlic in the fall:
In the spring for a good harvest
- After the snow has melted, remove the mulch layer from the seedlings.
- Loose the soil with a rake. Apply top dressing.
- Deep weeding after 2 weeks.
- Form holes around the stems.
- After a while, mulch with rotted manure or peat.
- Start watering 2-3 weeks after the snow melts (as the soil dries up).
Reference. In the spring, immediately after winter, if the leaves turn yellow as a result of night frosts, it is recommended to treat the plant with a solution of special stimulants. Spring garlic is only planted in spring - at the end of April or at the beginning of May.
We suggest watching a video about spring garlic care:
- Water every 10 days, more often in drought. In a rainy summer - only as the soil dries up.
- During the summer, the plant needs to be fertilized 2 times.
- During a severe drought in a completely open area, garlic will be useful to shade.
- When arrows appear, you need to delete them. This will slow down the ripening of the garlic somewhat. If you neglect the removal of the arrow, the bulb will form small.
- As necessary, carry out antiparasitic treatment.
- Greenhouse or indoor garlic continues to be cared for as usual, depending on the stage of development.
- Winter garlic is planted in the fall, at the beginning of winter, the condition of the garden is checked, mulching is carried out (if it was not carried out immediately after planting).
- In winter, the plant does not need watering or fertilization.
- Spring garlic is not grown in winter.
Possible errors and how to deal with them
- Excess water. Leads to rot, which can be detected by testing one plant. If there are signs of over-watering, remove the damaged plants.
- Postponement of harvest dates. Will lead to the decay of the teeth. The garlic is ready for harvesting as soon as the leaves turn yellow.
- Growing garlic from seeds and from cloves in the same area. Inconsistencies in terms and conditions will lead to confusion and poor quality care. Seeds and cloves need to be planted.
- Application of nitrogen fertilizers. It is appropriate only in rare cases for greenhouse or indoor cultivation - in the garden it leads to a reduction in the storage time of the crop.
- Landing on devastated soil. In spring and autumn, the land on the plots must be fertilized.
- Shading the area. The shade should not overlap the garden bed. For landing, choose an open area.
Garlic is a unique plant. It is both an excellent seasoning that gives expressiveness to good dishes, and an effective tool for strengthening the immune system. Garlic is used to treat many diseases. It is unpretentious in care and is available to everyone, and you can even grow it on a windowsill.