For gardeners who have opted for growing tomatoes in greenhouses, the question is always how and what to feed the plant so that it does not hurt and gives a good harvest. The fact is that greenhouse feeding has its own characteristics, besides, a tomato is a rather whimsical culture that constantly requires care and needs to create suitable conditions.
In the article you can read about the correct feeding of tomatoes during germination and planting in a greenhouse, for example, from polycarbonate, as well as about caring for tomatoes.
Features and differences in tomato growth
- The growth of tomatoes in a greenhouse depends on the correct variety. For greenhouses, varieties are chosen that are characterized by disease resistance, easy tolerance to temperature changes and some lack of lighting. Low-growing plants are suitable for small seasonal greenhouses, and tall varieties for spacious rooms.
- Soil preparation is carried out in advance. It must be warmed up, in the absence of heating, the doors and vents are tightly closed, and the earth is well loosened. The soil temperature for planting is +10 degrees.
- Seedlings are transplanted 50 days after seed germination. Pits are made in the previously watered ground, a tablespoon of mineral fertilizer is thrown there, watered with potassium permanganate and tomatoes are planted. Before planting, the lower leaves are removed from the seedlings.
- The appropriate temperature is 23-26 degrees, timely nutrition and regular watering are the basics of care for this culture. For irrigation, it is convenient to use automated systems: rain, drip, subsurface.
The need for special substances
Fertilizers for tomatoes are mineral and organic, they are used in a dry, liquid or semi-liquid state. The processing itself is carried out repeatedly and in different ways.
Macro and microelements
On a note. Macronutrients needed by tomatoes in a greenhouse are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.
- Nitrogen fertilizers responsible for the development of leaves and stems. It is important to comply with the norm: with a lack of nitrogen, the leaves will be small and pale, and with an excess of them, too many will grow, unnecessary lateral shoots will be added, which will lead to the worst growth of the fruits themselves.
- Phosphorus strengthens plant resistance to diseases and pests. Adequate phosphorus content contributes to the formation and strengthening of the root system, and also accelerates the process of fruit formation. The increased phosphorus content interferes with the production of zinc. Additional information on phosphorus fertilizers can be found here.
- Potassium accelerates and improves the maturation process, contributes to the creation of immunity against fungal diseases that are typical for greenhouses. In addition, potassium forms the resistance of the culture to unfavorable conditions.
These three macronutrients are basic in the diet of greenhouse tomatoes. They are responsible for the formation of the aerial part of the plant and the palatability of the fruit. The consequence of insufficient maintenance of any of them is a fallen harvest. In addition to the main macronutrients, microelements also affect the growth and development of tomatoes.
- Boron is responsible for the formation and development of the fruit ovary, and is also used in the treatment of various diseases. It helps to strengthen the immune system of the culture.
- Manganese responsible for the process of photosynthesis, which is extremely important in plant life. Without it, the deciduous cover of tomatoes suffers, while dry spots appear on the leaves.
- Zinc takes part in the exchange of nutrients and biosynthesis of vitamins, evenly saturates plants with nutrient elements.
- Magnesium accelerates the process of chlorophyll creation. It is desirable that the fertilizer contains molybdenum, since it controls the exchange of macronutrients.
- Sulfur carries out the synthesis of amino acids, and then proteins. It distributes and transports useful elements throughout the plant.
- Having enough calcium in the soil is necessary, as it promotes the assimilation of elements and the exchange of nutrients.
When, what kind of fertilizers are used and how do they feed, depending on the phase of development?
To replenish the closed ground during the season, fertilizers are applied three times.
- First time - two weeks after transshipment of seedlings under the shelter.
To do this, prepare the following compound: 200 g of ammonium nitrate, 500 g of double superphosphate and 100 g of potassium chloride are diluted in 100 liters of water.
- Second feeding produced during the formation of the ovary.
The solution is diluted in 100 l of water, 300 g of potassium nitrate and 800 g of superphosphate are added there. The mixture is poured directly under the root of the bushes.
- The third time greenhouse tomatoes are fed when ripe.
400 g of potassium nitrate and 400 g of superphosphate are thrown into the same volume of water.
It is possible to use special fertilizers containing the necessary complex of elements. Three dressings are the minimum required to feed greenhouse tomatoes.
The first procedure when germinating seeds
All seeds of hybrid varieties, which are bought in specialized stores, undergo primary processing during packaging. They are disinfected and germinate in the prepared soil of preliminary germination. If the seeds are not purchased, but collected, they are disinfected with potassium permanganate.
- The first top dressing is carried out after picking, therefore, nutrients are included in the seed substrate. Before the first fertilization, the sprouts feed on what the soil contains.
- Two weeks after the dive, the first fertilization takes place. For this, complexes containing macro- and microelements are used. They choose a chelated form of microelements: it breaks down into particles that young plants can assimilate. If the form is sulfate, young shoots do not assimilate the products of its decay.
- After the first feeding, the growth and development of the culture is monitored; if growth slows down, the procedure is repeated after ten days. The complex mixture can be replaced with a solution: 3 g of potassium, 8 g of superphosphate, 1 g of nitrate are thrown into a liter of water. It takes 500 g of the composition to feed each bush.
You can additionally learn about the first feeding of tomato seedlings here, and here we told you how to do this before and after the pick.
Before planting in the greenhouse, prepare the soil, add crushed egg shells and ash in small quantities to the holes (it is rich in essential elements). It is impossible to pour mineral fertilizers into the holes, a high concentration is harmful to the roots, the same applies to manure or humus.
It is recommended to pour them with an infusion of crushed herbs (nettle, plantain) immediately after planting. Wood ash and mullein are added to the grass, all this is mixed, and after a couple of days it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8. When watering, the consumption is 2 liters per bush.
During this period, the culture is experiencing an acute shortage of potassium and phosphorus, and nitrogen at this time is abundant. You cannot add urea to flowering tomatoes. When flowering, potash and phosphate fertilizers are the best fertilizers. Top dressing is used to stimulate growth. These include yeast, boric acid. In addition, boric acid is essential to fight late blight.
The recipe for the solution: 10 g of the substance are thrown into 10 liters of hot water, when the water cools down, the tomatoes are sprayed, and about 100 ml of liquid is consumed per 1 square meter.
Important! To increase the yield in the greenhouse, it is necessary to stimulate pollination. To increase the number of ovaries, the room is ventilated and the flowering brushes are periodically shaken, such shaking promotes the flight of pollen to neighboring bushes.
Foliar treatment includes spraying the aerial part of the plant. The plant quickly assimilates the necessary elements through the leaves. This method is used to achieve the desired result in a short time. In this case, the solutions should not be concentrated.
Mineral fertilizers are also used in dry form, scattering them on wet soil. During the flowering period for tomatoes, it is recommended to use a folk remedy - ash with water (2 glasses of ash per 10 liters of water); copper sulfate and manganese sulfate 1: 2. The treatment is carried out in cloudy weather to avoid sunburn.
You can find more information about foliar feeding here.
How to recognize the need for foliar feeding?
The lack of each element has its own characteristics.
- With boron deficiency, there is a curvature of the top of the bush, the appearance of brown spots on the fruits and yellowness at the base of the shoot.
- With a lack of zinc, small leaves appear with brown spots, gradually filling the entire leaf, and somewhat resembling a sunburn.
- If magnesium is absent, the leaves between the veins turn yellow or discolor.
- With a lack of molybdenum, the leaves curl, signs of chlorosis appear.
- If there is not enough calcium, external changes of young leaves occur, their tips dry out, and then the entire leaf plate, while the old leaves grow and darken. The tops of the fruits begin to rot, and in case of an acute lack of calcium, the top of the bush can die off altogether.
- Sulfur deficiency gives very thin stems, leaves turn light green and gradually turn yellow.
- If there is no iron, first of all, the foliage at the base turns yellow, later they become white with green veins.
- The lack of manganese has the same symptoms, but yellowness does not appear in the lower part, but is distributed randomly.
- With a lack of nitrogen, the bush withers rapidly, starting from the lower leaves.
- A phosphorus deficiency gives the plant a purple color, if the deficiency is insignificant, only the stem and the lower part of the bush acquire a purple tint.
- The lack of potassium results in poor flowering and few ovaries.
To fill the deficiency of nutrients
- As a growth stimulant, ordinary yeast is suitable, they saturate the tomato with useful substances and strengthen the immune system. For the solution take:
- small bag of yeast;
- 2 tbsp. l. Sahara;
- some warm water to dissolve all this;
- the mass is diluted with 10 liters of water, each plant takes half a liter of liquid.
- Tomatoes are fed with iodine once or twice a season. For 100 liters of water, 40 drops are needed, the bushes are sprayed abundantly, 2 liters each. on the bush.
- Foliar ash treatment is useful at any stage of growth, the consumption of the composition is the same as in previous cases. The solution consists of 10 glasses of ash per 100 liters of water.
In conclusion, it should be noted that regular and timely fertilization of greenhouse tomatoes is also necessary, as well as watering and weeding. In addition to purchased complex fertilizers, formulations made from improvised means are also used. Of course, you need to know when to stop, since an increased amount of mineral fertilizers leads to a deterioration in the taste of tomatoes.
From the video you will find out what top dressing tomatoes need and when they need to be applied: