For a long time, garlic continues to be a favorite ingredient in the preparation of many dishes and is popular in Russia.
There is an increased demand for garlic. This makes the garlic growing business profitable. But for this you need to understand all the subtleties and nuances of the growth of this plant.
More information about planting in the spring and the differences in the procedure in the fall, how to prepare materials, as well as possible problems and difficulties, can be found in this article.
Can I plant in the spring?
Garlic varieties can be divided into 2 types: winter and spring. Most varieties of garlic are winter crops and are planted in the fall. Spring varieties are planted in the spring. Visually, these varieties can be distinguished by the presence of a vertical central core in winter garlic varieties and its absence in spring ones. This is due to the fact that the overwhelming majority of winter varieties are arrowed, and a part of the arrow remains in its head.
Spring varieties usually do not shoot, and the bulbs consist of cloves. In spring garlic, the cloves are smaller than in winter garlic, they are located chaotically. Spring garlic is less resistant to frost, so it is advisable to grow it in the southern regions of the Russian Federation:
- Rostov region;
- Krasnodar region;
- North Caucasus.
It is advisable to plant spring varieties of garlic in spring, due to its low frost resistance.
Features and differences of the procedure in the autumn period
Many gardeners categorize garlic varieties by planting time. This is not entirely true, as any varieties can be planted in spring and autumn. But these varietal groups have different biological properties. Based on this, it is more expedient to plant spring garlic in spring (is winter garlic planted in spring?).
Planting in the fall allows you to free up time for planting other crops. Spring varieties do not have such a high survival rate and resistance when planted in autumn. Their main advantage is longer shelf life. It should be noted that the planting of winter garlic in autumn is partly due to its short shelf life. But the harvests of such garlic are higher.
Reference! The division by the time of disembarkation is only a very conditional sign. All varieties can be planted both in spring and autumn. But if the planting dates are not followed, the yield may fall, and the quality of the bulbs may also fall.
Spring garlic prefers light loam, and winter garlic prefers sandy loam soils. Spring varieties are planted only with cloves, since they do not have an arrow, where air bulbs grow. For details on when to plant spring garlic in the spring and why planting dates are so important, read this article.
When is the best time to carry out the procedure?
It is advisable to plant spring varieties in spring. The best time is late March - early April. The landing is carried out after the snow cover comes off the ground, and the temperature will be kept at a level not lower than +5 degrees.
The main condition is the saturation of the soil with water, with a lack of moisture, the garlic will grow, but the yield will be low. Planted spring varieties are threatened by hot weather, therefore, you need to land early.
Can it be placed directly in open ground?
It is possible to plant the cloves directly into the ground. But to increase the percentage of germination and yield, it is necessary to carry out a complex of pre-planting preparation, which involves keeping the planting material in cool conditions and pre-planting processing of the bulbs.
Step-by-step instructions for preparing materials
As already noted, the reproduction of winter varieties of garlic occurs by planting cloves. To obtain a rich harvest, you need to comply with the requirements of agricultural technology.
Preparation of garden tools
At the time of planting, gardening tools should be in stock and ready to use. It is advisable to disinfect garden tools and planting containers. This will reduce pest and disease damage to the bulbs. For this, treatment with a formalin solution (250 cm3 of the drug per 10 liters of water) or bleach infusion (400 g per 10 liters of water) is used.
For landing you will need:
In large farms, plows, a harrow are used for soil cultivation, and garlic planters are used for planting.
Be sure to prepare the soil before planting. To do this, it is fertilized using:
- organic (humus);
- mineral fertilizers:
When grown on an industrial scale, plowing and harrowing are used. When growing in home gardens, the soil must be dug up 1-2 weeks before planting, and it must also be raked to remove large lumps of soil. Landing areas should be well lit.
The soil must be drained, and the addition of sand to the soil is beneficial, which improves its drainage. Garlic grows poorly in acidic soil. The optimum acidity level is considered to be between 6.5 and 7.9.
We must take the preparatory work seriously, since the success of the growth of crops and the volume of the future harvest depend on them. It is necessary to correctly determine the variety of garlic and its belonging to the spring varieties. Held:
- calibration and selection of bulbs;
- their stratification;
- as well as soaking.
It is necessary to examine all the seed material, find all diseased bulbs and separate them from the bulk. Do not immediately separate the teeth from the heads. It is advisable to do this the day before soaking and disinfection.
Attention! When planting, do not use bulbs with signs of degeneration (accrete or doubled). When using such planting material, one cannot count on a decent harvest.
- A month before planting in the soil, the bulbs must be moved to a refrigerator or other cold room (cellar) for stratification. The temperature should be at +3 degrees.
For planting material, it is better to use the outer teeth from the first row. The inside is not used because the bulbs are too small.
- About a day before planting, you need to get the garlic, let it warm up a little at room temperature.
- Then you need to divide the bulbs into cloves, select the diseased cloves.
- On the day of planting, before the procedure, it is necessary to process the bulbs, they can be soaked in a solution of fungicides or in a solution of manganese for half an hour. This will minimize the risk of introducing fungal diseases to the cultivated area. You can also use an ash solution.
- To increase germination, treatment using growth accelerators is used. There is a wide range of growth accelerators, so you need to act in accordance with the instructions for their use.
To protect against wireworm, soak in a salt solution (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water) for 1 minute.
The process itself - how to plant it correctly?
The process of planting garlic does not present any particular difficulties, but compliance with the basic rules is mandatory!
After what crops?
It is not advisable to plant garlic on sown areas where onions, potatoes and tomatoes were previously grown. Desirable precursors are cabbage, legumes, courgettes and cucumbers.
More about the compatibility of garlic and different vegetables, as well as after which crops it can be planted, we talked about in a separate article.
To what depth should spring and winter varieties be placed?
When planting spring varieties, a smaller planting depth is used than for winter varieties. The average planting depth is 5 cm. Excessive deepening of the bulbs slows down the period of their germination.
Garlic is planted in straight rows, the row spacing is 20-25 centimeters. The row spacing between the bulbs will depend on the size of the bulbs. Usually the garlic is planted at a distance of 10 cm from each other in a row. The teeth must be planted strictly vertically.
Caring for the planted crops consists in the timely removal of weeds, loosening and watering. For a good harvest, watering plays an important role.
It is advisable at the beginning of the seedling growth period to carry out two dressings of garlic with nitrogen fertilizers. The interval between dressings should be 2 weeks.
Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied to the soil when planting crops. Also use organic fertilizers:
- slurry solution.
Excessive organic fertilizer can lead to yellowing of the leaves.
From mid-April to early July, crops are irrigated once a week. With an abundance of atmospheric precipitation, irrigation is reduced in part or even completely. To combat stagnation of moisture in the aisles, drainage grooves are made. In a cold summer, watering is carried out less often - 1 time in 9 days. The rate of water consumption is from 5 to 10 liters of water per 1 square meter. It is permissible to increase the volume of water during dry periods.
Attention! It is necessary to stop irrigation of the garlic 3 weeks before the intended harvest.
For successful growth, you need to timely remove weeds from the garlic beds.
Possible problems and difficulties
Spring garlic does not tolerate too low temperatures, in this connection, the landing should be carried out only when favorable conditions occur. Also, problems can arise from damage by pests and diseases. However, with timely detection and control, they do not pose a serious danger. There are a wide variety of insecticides and fungicides that can protect your plants.
Spring varieties of garlic, with proper agricultural technology, will delight you with a rich harvest. Delicious and aromatic bulbs will make your meals tastier, especially since eating garlic is good for your health.
The responsibility for the success of garlic cultivation lies most of all with the properly organized planting of the plant. Here you not only need to choose high-quality seed, but also know all the subtleties and features of this process. How to grow garlic at home - read on our website.
Read more about planting spring garlic in the spring in the video below: