Radish is a genus of herbaceous plants of the Cabbage family. In the wild, it is found in Europe and the temperate latitudes of Asia.
The edible part of the radish is the root vegetable, which tastes like a radish. The plant is highly regarded in folk medicine for its beneficial properties and is widely used in cooking for the preparation of salads, snacks, soups and other dishes.
In the article we will tell you in detail about the features of growing radish and about compatibility with other vegetables. Let's reveal the secrets of a good harvest. We will also talk about possible difficulties and ways to overcome them.
Features of growing and care
Growing radish has certain characteristics, distinguishing caring for her from caring for other vegetables:
- Sensitivity to light - a lack of it will lead to the formation of unsuitable root crops. It is best grown in an open area with abundant sunlight.
- The introduction of fresh organic fertilizers under the radish is not practiced: this will provoke the reproduction of pests, increased shooting.
- For harvesting in summer, radish is planted in early May, for winter harvesting - in the second half of June.
- It will not be possible to grow high-quality root crops on dry and solid ground.
- The best soil for growing a crop is loam. Unlike other vegetables, such soil as black soil is not suitable for radishes.
- The radish is resistant to low temperatures on the soil and in the air, it can withstand sharp temperature fluctuations.
- This culture, unlike many others, in most cases does not require additional feeding.
- During periods of drought, abundant watering is required - in order to avoid cracking the fruits, the appearance of bitterness in them.
Compatibility with other vegetables
Radish prefers the neighborhood of such crops as radishes, carrots, spinach, cucumbers, zucchini, tomatoes, beets and parsnips. It is better to refuse the idea of planting cabbage, peas or strawberries on the same bed with radish. A radish gives a good harvest if tomatoes, potatoes, greens, cucumbers or pumpkins grew on the site before it.
In more detail about what after which you can plant and what the radish can coexist with, it is said here.
Among the variety of radish varieties, there are early ripening (for example, Maiskaya), mid-ripening (Margelanskaya, Chudnaya) and late-ripening (Lekar, Gaivoronskaya).
The choice of variety will be based on factors such as the desired harvest time, climate and local weather conditions, in which the vegetable will be grown, taste and medicinal properties, expected shelf life, amount of harvest, etc.
To obtain an early harvest, preference is given to frost-resistant varieties that can be planted in March. If you want the harvested crop to retain its quality longer, such varieties as Winter round white or Winter long black are suitable. When growing radishes for medicinal purposes, the choice should be made in favor of the Margelanskaya variety.
The Daikon variety is considered one of the best. It has a pleasant taste, unpretentious, root crops can reach sizes up to 60 cm in length and up to 10 cm in diameter. All parts of the plant are edible.
Reference. This plant differs in that it does not absorb harmful substances from the environment, it can be safely planted in ecologically polluted areas - toxins in the root crop will not accumulate.
Radish varieties, the selection of which took place in Russia, are the least demanding in terms of care and are most suitable for growing in northern and temperate latitudes.
You can buy radish seeds in specialized stores or online. It is better not to purchase planting material from sellers with a dubious reputation. Seed prices range from 5 to 3500 rubles. per package, depending on the type, quality of the goods, weight of the contents of the package, etc.
In the greenhouse
- Landing. Greenhouse radish can be planted both in spring and summer, and at the beginning of winter. The soil before planting should be moist; it is recommended to apply mineral fertilizers to it. Seeds are planted in the soil to a depth of 3 cm, the interval is 15 cm.The distance between the rows is at least 20 cm.
- Growing conditions. The greenhouse must maintain a stable temperature (about 20-23 degrees). It is important to provide the vegetable with an additional light source (for example, fluorescent lamps).
- Watering. Greenhouse radish is watered as the soil dries, on average - once every 14-15 days, winter varieties - less often. Watering should be abundant (about 8-10 liters of water per 1m2).
- Top dressing. Radish needs mineral fertilizers no more often than 1-2 times during the entire cultivation period (at the stage of emergence of sprouts and a month after that). Late-ripening autumn varieties are fertilized weekly (in addition to mineral ones, nitrogen fertilizers are used).
- Weeding. Weeds sprouting next to the radish must be regularly removed - manually (by pulling out of the soil) or using special equipment (for example, a hoe). Shallow loosening of the soil is useful 2-3 times a month.
- Thinning. Radish is a large plant, for the full development of the sprouts it is necessary to thin out in time (after the emergence of seedlings and 2-3 weeks after the first thinning). It is better to cut off weak shoots at the base of the stem, and not pull out by the root (this can damage the rhizomes of healthy plants).
- Hilling applies only in the cold season (to prevent freezing).
In the open field
Planting is carried out both in spring and summer. Podzimnyaya planting is allowed, when using seed of special varieties (about when to plant radish, it is said here). There are 2 main planting methods:
- Landing. Prepared seeds (to a depth of 2-3 cm) are planted in pre-fertilized and moistened soil with marked grooves, sprinkled with earth on top, tamped, mulched the beds. The interval between seeds is 15-20 cm, between rows - 20-25 cm.
- Growing conditions. The optimum temperature for root crop growth is 18-22 degrees. Radish prefers long daylight hours for uniform ripening.
- Watering should be regular. Long breaks can lead to the formation of voids in the root crops. At first, after germination, the radish is watered every 10 days, in the summer - as the soil dries up. 1 m2 10-15 liters of water should go away. Winter varieties do not require abundant watering.
- Top dressing. During the season, mineral fertilizers are applied 2 times - at the stage when 2-3 true leaves appear in the sprouts and at the initial stage of fruit formation, 25-30 days after the first feeding. Top dressing is stopped 3 weeks before harvest.
- Weeding. Weeds are removed from the garden as they grow. Weeds increase the risk of garden pests, "pull" moisture and nutrients from the soil. After watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil (no deeper than 6-7 cm).
- Thinning produce some time after germination of seedlings. Excess and weakened shoots are removed by pulling out or cutting them off. 5-6 cm of free soil is left between the shoots. During re-thinning, the distance between them should increase to 15 cm (in the case of summer varieties) or to 20-25 cm (in the case of winter varieties).
- Hilling. It is produced to prevent rapid evaporation of moisture from the soil, to protect autumn-winter crops from frost. It is also carried out as the upper part of the root crop becomes visible from the ground - in this case, the process of "shoveling" the soil around the plant helps to preserve the taste of the product.
- Landing. Sowing seeds is carried out in containers filled with nutrient substrate. The interval between seeds is at least 3 cm.
- Growing conditions. Seedlings are kept in a dry, dark place, after the emergence of sprouts, they are transferred to the sunny side or balcony.
- Watering and feeding. Water the sprouts, depending on the moisture content of the soil, on average once every 10-12 days. During the cultivation of seedlings, top dressing is not applied, there is enough fertilized soil when planting seeds.
- Thinning radishes at home are as necessary as when grown in a greenhouse or open field from seeds.
- Weeding and hilling seedlings are not produced. In the phase of 3-4 true leaves, the plants are planted in the garden.
Full-fledged cultivation on the balcony in large containers is common.
- Planting in tubs is carried out so that the plants do not interfere with each other, and the root crops have enough room for development. Early ripening and unpretentious varieties are best suited.
- Conditions. The optimum temperature is 15-22 degrees. In winter, the plant can be transferred to the room, in the warm season - exposed to the open air.
- Watering is carried out once a week, feeding is applied 1-2 times per season.
- Thinning is a must when caring for home radish.
- Weeding is carried out as needed.
- Hilling is done only if the roots are bare.
Secrets of a good harvest
When growing, it is important to remember some of the subtleties:
- Mulching the beds will help the earth retain moisture and nutrients longer, and a moisture-loving culture will delight you with a rich harvest.
- Soil acidity indicators should be low, then the roots will be large, with a rich taste.
- The abundance of sunlight is the key to the development of large root crops.
- Pollination of the area with crops with tobacco dust and ash every few days. This will protect the plant from pests, and the ash will act as a potash fertilizer.
- White rot - damage and discoloration of tissues.
- Powdery mildew - affects petioles and leaves, less often stems.
- Blackleg - fungal infection of the upper part of the root crop and the lower part of the deciduous rosette.
Struggle: isolation of healthy plants from sick plants, disposal of damaged parts or a diseased plant as a whole, treatment with drugs that prevent the development of pathogenic flora.
- Cabbage (butterfly).
- Cabbage moth.
- Spring cabbage fly.
- Cruciferous fleas.
Control: Spraying affected plants with water and insecticides, isolating them from other crops.
Prevention: timely and regular antiparasitic treatment.
Possible difficulties and ways to overcome them
- Root decay. Occurs due to excess moisture. The amount of water must be reduced.
- Fruits do not develop well. Perhaps the plant does not have enough light or the soil is too heavy. The problem is solved by replanting in more suitable conditions, by regularly loosening the soil.
- Strong shooting. Perhaps the soil is highly acidic. It is allowed by artificially reducing the acidity of the soil (for example, liming).
- Cracking of the fruit. May be due to moisture deficiency. It is necessary to establish an irrigation regime, mulch the beds or hilling plants.
Such an amazing culture as radish is not only a tasty product, but also an excellent medicine. It normalizes metabolism, the work of the gastrointestinal tract, and has a choleretic effect.
Radish is actively used in folk medicine to treat coughs and other diseases. But still, despite the beneficial properties, this vegetable has certain contraindications, for example, it is undesirable to eat a lot of radishes during pregnancy.
To replenish the body with vitamins and nutrients that make up the chemical composition of the vegetable, it is recommended to add radish to the usual diet in winter and spring. The vegetable has established itself as an effective prophylactic and anti-inflammatory agent, thanks to which it is becoming more and more popular for growing in personal plots.