We all know that Siberia does not favor its inhabitants with excellent weather conditions. Therefore, in this region it is not easy not only to live and work, but even more so to grow any garden crops.
Every inhabitant of this region wants to have fresh vegetables from their own garden on their table, because it is important to eat healthy foods. In the article, we will talk about the features of growing tomatoes in Siberia and talk about the varieties that are most suitable for this.
Features of the climate of this region
All climatic characteristics are explained by the geographical location of the region, which occupies the northeastern parts of Eurasia. Winter in this area is very harsh - the temperature here reaches 60 degrees below zero... But at the same time, the summer is quite warm here, and in some parts this time is also long.
The soil begins to warm up from the beginning of June, and in the southern parts even from the end of spring. The thermometer can rise up to 25 degrees Celsius, sometimes the heat can go up to +35 degrees.
A characteristic feature of the Siberian climate is a sharp continental difference in some parts of the region. Usually it is 35-65 degrees, and in rare cases it reaches 90 degrees.
The transition from winter to summer occurs quite rapidly, therefore the off-season is very short - there is practically no autumn and spring. Precipitation is extremely rare and small, usually in July and August. The diversity of the climate is explained by the length of the region.
In winter, Siberia is distinguished by the duration of polar nights, at this time, almost the whole day passes at dusk. While in summer the sun hardly sets over the horizon, this explains the polar days. As for the air temperature in the "polar" periods, it practically does not differ in different parts of the day. That is, the temperature does not change either day or night. When summer comes and there are polar days, the warming up of the soil, melting of snow and germination of plants occurs quite rapidly.
What varieties of tomatoes are better to plant here?
The seeds of this culture have been bred for a long time. This job takes a lot of effort and hard work. But over the years of fruitful work, botanists have bred many varieties. Let's list the most popular ones.
You can find out what determines the choice of tomato varieties for planting here.
"Siberian early ripening"
It is considered a low-growing plant, suitable for planting both in greenhouses and in open ground. It is worth noting that the yield indicators will be slightly higher if tomatoes are grown in greenhouse conditions. Tomatoes grow in regular round shape, medium weight, rich red color. The harvest will ripen in 3.5 months... Among the advantages are the following: resistance to adverse weather conditions and high yield.
How the Siberian early ripening tomato grows can be seen in this useful video:
A distinctive feature of this variety is large fruits (their weight can reach a kilogram). Fruits are glossy, red, round, fleshy, juicy. Productivity from 1 square meter - 10-15 kilograms... The described variety is one of the most popular among agronomists in Siberia.
You can see the description of the Alsou variety in this video:
Great for outdoor cultivation. The fruits are large, but slightly inferior to the Alsou variety - a tomato grows about 500 grams, sometimes a little more. The height of the culture can be up to one meter, so the bushes must be tied up. The resulting crop is suitable for pickling and pickling. additions to salads.
We offer you to watch a useful video with a review of the "Berdsky large" tomato:
Differs in a short ripening period, as well as a long fruiting period. The first crop can be harvested after three months. The variety grows short - up to half a meter, so there is no need to tie it up.
Low-growing plants. Harvesting is possible 3.5 months after planting. The fruit is medium in size, has a slightly silvery shade and a round shape... This variety is considered one of the youngest in the world of selection.
"King of Siberia"
The name was given to tomatoes for its king size - one tomato can weigh up to 1000 grams. A characteristic feature of the variety is its thin skin and juicy pulp. The plant is not tall, but still needs tying and pinching.
The ripening period does not exceed three months. The fruits are relatively small - they reach only 150 grams maximum. The bushes are small, on which from 4 to 6 fruits can form. It is important to grow tomatoes so that the bush has only one stem.
The most important distinguishing feature is the taste of the variety. Sugar capacity in tomato - 6%... Small fruits. The ripening period is 100-110 days.
It is one of the more recent varieties. It is considered an early maturing and undersized variety. Agronomists collect up to seven kilograms of crops from one bush.
Consider the timing of sowing seeds in a greenhouse, as well as when to plant grown tomato seedlings in open ground.
When is the best time to sow seeds in a greenhouse?
If we talk about sowing seeds for seedlings, then it is best to do this in mid-February... Thus, by mid-April, the seedlings will be ready for planting in a greenhouse. This applies to undersized and medium-sized tomatoes. And tomatoes, which are distinguished by tall bushes, are planted for seedlings towards the end of February. They should also be transferred to the greenhouse at a later date.
Important! Remember that only those seedlings that have grown at least two leaves are ready for planting in the greenhouse.
When to move seedlings outdoors?
It is best to move greenhouse shoots into open ground from mid-June. But before that, it is best to harden the seedlings. To do this, two weeks before landing on the site, you need to open the greenhouse and let fresh air in there. It is necessary to select the planting time taking into account that the climbing time of tomatoes is about 100 days. Therefore, plan the planting of tomatoes so that the fruits have time to ripen and give a rich harvest before the first frost.
Features of growing tomatoes
To plant tomatoes in this region, you need to find the right soil first. It should be fertile and well hydrated. It is not recommended to plant a crop in the same place for more than three years in a row, as the land becomes poor and dry.
It is important to correctly select the alternation of crops on your site. The best predecessors for tomatoes are:
It is necessary to dig up the soil before planting in the fall and early spring. The most optimal plowing depth is 25-30 centimeters. Plowing the soil is combined with feeding it, while adding organic and mineral fertilizers.
Step-by-step instructions: how to grow vegetables from seeds correctly?
Remember that without seedlings, you will not be able to grow a healthy and rich harvest.
- The prepared seeds are placed in the ground at a depth of 1-2 centimeters (for details on how to process tomato seeds before sowing, read here).
- Then the soil is well moistened, but this must be done very carefully so as not to wash the planting material.
- After that, the container with seeds is covered with foil or glass.
- It is necessary to put the planted seeds in a room whose temperature is at the level of 22-25 degrees.
- As soon as the first shoots have appeared, you need to start opening the container for ventilation.
Moisten the substrate only as needed - you cannot overfill the seedlings. Make sure that the daylight hours for seeds are kept for 10-12 hours a day. In some cases, you will have to resort to phytolamps.
Step by step care instructions
- Choose a landing site that is well-lit and well-ventilated. However, at the same time, it is necessary to protect the seedlings from drafts.
- The air temperature should be kept at 20-25 degrees. On very hot days, it is better to cover the tomatoes with a special net that allows fresh air to pass through, but does not allow the sun to burn the leaf plates.
- It is possible to transfer grown seedlings to open ground only when the threat of frost has passed, and the ground has warmed up to at least 10 degrees. If you plant seedlings in May, you still need to cover them with foil overnight. Sometimes agronomists use plain paper or cardboard rather than film. In this case, the cartons are sprinkled with soil so that they do not fly off.
- The planting scheme must be observed as follows: 60 * 70 or 70 * 70. Remember to add wood ash to each hole. Seedlings are planted in depth so that the first leaves are buried in the soil. Once the sprouts have been placed in open ground, they need to be well watered (at least 2-3 liters for each bush). Moisten the soil under the root system. After watering, you must immediately loosen the soil so that a crust does not form, which will interfere with air circulation.
- Every two weeks it is necessary to fertilize the plant in turn, changing the organic and mineral fertilizing. It is advisable to use ready-made complexes for this and dilute them according to the instructions on the package.
- As soon as the height of the bushes exceeds 60-70 centimeters, they need to be tied up. This can be done with each bush separately, or you can stretch one rope for the entire row.
- At the first appearance of the stepsons, they must be removed, leaving only small hemp. When the first tomato ovaries appear on the bushes, the lowest leaf plates will need to be cut off. Also, do not forget to remove dry and diseased areas of the stem.
- Do not forget to regularly remove weeds that prevent tomatoes from growing and developing fully.
Growing tomatoes in an area with such difficult climatic conditions is very troublesome. But it's worth it, because if you get a good harvest, you will always have fresh and organic vegetables.