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Growing tomatoes is not difficult. But how can you do it cheaper and more efficiently? Some people prefer to buy seedlings at the market or in a nursery, others - grow tomatoes from seeds.
By using healthy, ripe tomatoes that you may already have in your kitchen, you can grow unique tomatoes. If you love tomatoes and want to include tomatoes from your own garden in your diet, then try growing them from seeds. This method has both advantages and disadvantages. But one thing is clear - tomatoes grown from seeds will not be oversaturated with fertilizers and will cost much less.
How to grow tomatoes correctly?
Growing tomatoes from seeds can be divided into several stages.... This is the preparation of seeds, sowing, growing seedlings, picking, planting tomatoes in the ground.
- The first thing to do is to choose the right seeds, since it takes longer to grow tomatoes by seeds than by seedlings, and the right choice at this stage will save time in the future. In this case, the climate and the composition of the soil must be taken into account. You should also decide on the variety, what exactly do you want? An early or late variety of tomatoes, or maybe you need vegetables that can be stored for a long time?
- After the seeds are selected, they are prepared and sown (you can find out how to process tomato seeds before sowing here).
- When the seedlings grow up a little, they are dived and planted in separate containers. Here they grow until the time comes for transplanting into the ground. How to grow tomato seedlings from seeds without picking, read here.
It should also be said that there is also a seedless way of growing tomatoes from seeds.
There are some peculiarities here:
- Choose the right sowing time.
- Choose a suitable location (north and south sides will not work).
- Prepare and fertilize the beds.
- Prepare covering material.
- Install arches over the bed to protect the seedlings.
Pros and cons of cultivating tomatoes from seed
- Cheapness. Growing tomatoes from seeds will cost several times less than growing from purchased seedlings.
- High survival rate and fertility of tomatoes.
- Guaranteed to receive organic vegetables.
- Serious labor costs.
- The need for a large area (for seedlings).
- There is no guarantee that the plants will be healthy and produce a good harvest.
- You need to have the necessary knowledge and skills.
Seed preparation is where to start. After all correctly selected and prepared seed is the key to a good harvest.
Tomato seeds can be purchased:
- in the nursery;
- in a specialized store;
- On the market;
- in the online store.
Prices for planting material can range from 10-15 rubles to 100-150 rubles per package. It depends on the variety of tomatoes and the quality of the planting material.
Since you can grow tomatoes from your own seeds, you need to carefully approach the issue of collecting seed.
How to collect seeds yourself:
- You should choose the fruit of brown ripeness.
- Cut his reproach.
- Gently squeeze the seeds into a container along with the juice.
- Place in a warm place for 2-3 days to ferment.
- If a thin diaper and bubbles have appeared on the surface, and the seeds have sunk to the bottom, then fermentation is complete.
- The liquid is carefully drained, and the seeds are washed under running water.
- Then they should be spread out on a cotton cloth in a thin layer and placed in a warm and dry place. Here they dry out within a few days.
Attention! Overripe fruits and fruits of F1 hybrids should not be used for seed collection.
Seed preparation and treatment:
- Disinfection. In order for the plants to hurt less, the seeds are disinfected before sowing. To do this, they need to be soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per glass of water) for 15-20 minutes.
- Soaking in a special solution. To do this, prepare a solution: 1 tsp nitrophoska, 1 tbsp. spoon of wood ash, 2 teaspoons of sodium humate, 1 tbsp. l fertilizer "Idel". The seeds are placed in the solution for 12 hours.
- After that, the seeds are placed in warm clean water for 24 hours.
- Now the seeds must be sown immediately into the soil.
Usually, a mini greenhouse is used for growing tomato seedlings.... You can buy it in the store or make it yourself. Any container and a cut-off large plastic bottle or plastic bag will do. How to plant and care for seedlings:
- Soil preparation. To do this, mix in equal parts sod soil humus and peat, you can add river sand. Before sowing seeds, the soil is disinfected, for this it is kept in a hot oven for 30 minutes. Then the soil is spilled with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
- Seedlings are usually sown in late February - early March.
- Seedlings should be provided with good lighting during growth. To do this, they are placed on the southern windowsill and, if necessary, illuminated with a special lamp. Growing seedlings should be lit for at least 10 hours a day. The night temperature in the room should not be lower than +18 degrees.
- The first feeding is done after the appearance of 2-3 true leaves. To do this, dilute 1 tablespoon of urea in 10 liters of water. The second feeding is carried out a week after the first. To do this, dilute 1 tablespoon of nitrophoska per liter of water. Then the seedlings are fed every 12-14 days before planting in the ground. To do this, you can use "Agricole No. 3" or "Effecton O".
Transfer to the ground
The soil for tomatoes should be good for moisture and air., but at the same time, it should be quite fatty and nutritious. Before planting, the soil is prepared in advance. To do this, it must be watered with a hot solution of copper sulfate (20-30g per liter of water). The temperature of the solution is 80 degrees. This is the prevention of pests.
After that, organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 10 kg of humus per 1 sq. m; 50-60 g of superphosphate and ½ bucket of wood ash for the same area. Then the site is dug up. Usually, seedlings are planted in the ground in mid or late May. But the main factor is the air temperature.
The optimum temperature is + 22-23 degrees - during the day, +15 - at night. If the night temperature is below + 15, then you will have to wait with landing. It should also be taken into account that tomatoes are light-loving plants and they need to be planted in an open place, where there is a lot of sun and heat.
How to plant tomatoes:
- When planting, the size of the bush should be at least 20-15 cm in height.
- Before planting, a hole is dug (depth - 1 shovel bayonet).
- Then about one and a half liters of settled water at room temperature should be poured there.
- The plant is placed in a hole and held so that the root does not touch the bottom.
- Then the root is covered with earth and pressed tightly.
- Water the tomatoes liberally immediately after planting.
- Planting is carried out in the evening or in cloudy weather.
Planting seeds directly into the ground: how to sow?
- First of all, you should properly prepare the holes. They are dug out in advance and added to each a little peat and humus in equal parts. Above the holes, special arches are installed to protect the seedlings from the weather.
- Now you can start sowing. For this, determinant (undersized) early varieties of tomatoes are used. Seeds are sown compactly (about 30 cm apart).
Before sowing, the well should be watered with a hot solution of potassium permanganate.
- Place about 5 seeds in each well. In the future, when the seedlings germinate, no more than 2 pieces are left in the hole. The rest are either transplanted or thrown away.
- After seeding, a cut plastic bottle is placed over each well to create a greenhouse effect. After that, a transparent plastic film is stretched over the installed arcs and pressed tightly to the ground.
Cultivation and care
Conditions of detention
If the cultivation is carried out in a seedless way, then after the emergence of seedlings it is better not to disturb them. After the seeds grow up and the first true leaves appear, the seedlings open depending on the weather. If the weather is sunny, but cool for several hours, you can remove the plastic wrap, while the cut-off jar that covers the hole remains.
Banks can be removed only after the appearance of 3-5 real leaves, in warm weather. Initially, the bank is withdrawn for no more than 5-10 minutes, then the time is increased by 5 minutes daily. This is how tempering occurs.
If the cultivation is carried out by the seedling method, then in the first two weeks after planting in the ground, the plant should not be disturbed... At first, you should not feed a young tomato either. It is necessary to give time to the root system to take root in the soil, and the plant itself to adapt.
Young tomatoes are watered quite often, since the root system and the plant itself are actively growing, growing the stem and green mass, which means that it actively consumes water and nutrients from the soil. Young plants are watered with warm, settled water from a watering can. Do not water the tomatoes with a hose or bucket, as the strong pressure of water can damage fragile roots.
- After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, the first feeding should be done. To do this, dissolve 1.5 g of ammonium nitrate in 1 liter of water. No more than 0.5 l of solution is poured into each well.
- The second feeding is carried out in 2-3 weeks. To do this, you can use a nitrophosphate (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water). No more than 0.5 liters of solution is poured into the well.
- The third feeding is done after the formation of the ovary. Mullein or bird droppings work well for feeding.
The solution is prepared at the rate of 1 part of mullein or droppings to 10 parts of water. Pour no more than 250-300 grams into the hole, so as not to cause burns to the roots.
Attention! The plant should be watered abundantly before fertilizing.
Gardening is a great way to save money and grow healthy vegetables. This is not at all difficult to do, you just need to know the rules and carefully follow them. Knowledge and work will do their job. And the result will be a wonderful harvest. But the most important thing is the moral satisfaction from growing plants with your own hands.