Amaryllis is an unpretentious plant with a wide variety of shades (white, pink, red, emerald, striped), originally from South Africa. It is presented in two types. Amaryllis belladonna is grown indoors.
Carl Linnaeus mistakenly combined two varieties: amaryllis and hippeastrum. English scientist and florist, William Herbert, in 1821 proposed a new classification, leaving one species in the genus "amaryllis" - African amaryllis, excluding all American ones.
When is the flowering period?
It all depends on the variety: some bloom in late winter, others in early spring, others in autumn or summer (read about the variety of varieties and species of amaryllis here). But one thing is invariable - there must be a period of rest for the bulb to rest and gain strength. If properly cared for, the bulb will produce a rapidly growing flower stalk (over 85 cm) with large, funnel-shaped buds (seven to twelve flowers per inflorescence).
Since the plant is native to Africa, its rest falls on the end of spring - summer. At this time, the amaryllis has winter. And when we have March-April, in the homeland of a flower - the end of summer, flowering begins. Amaryllis blooms for about a month. With proper care, you can achieve 2-3 blooms per year: before and after winter.
Why does it happen in December?
Flowering can be triggered by improper dormant conditions. It should be borne in mind that amaryllis are often confused with hippeastrum even by experts. You need to find out what kind of plant you have. The main difference is that in the first - the peduncle inside is completely filled with tissue, in the second - it is hollow.
After flowering (in January), it is necessary to cut off the inflorescence, leaving the stem until it turns yellow. Leaves should also be left. The nutrients will sink down to the bulb. You also need to fertilize the soil for foliage to grow.
Important! The more foliage after flowering, the larger the buds will be next year.
How to properly care for a plant at home?
Let's talk about the conditions and care required for flowering.
During growth - bright scattered. It takes 16 hours of daylight for normal development. It is better to put the plant on the windowsill of a window facing southwest or southeast. It is necessary to periodically turn the pot with the other side, this will ensure a slender growth of the peduncle. The bulb does not need light during the dormant period.
During active growth: during the day 20-22 ºC, at night not less than 18ºC. For bulbs during rest - need coolness, minimum 10 ºC and maximum 18 ºC. If the temperature is below optimal, the amaryllis will die. Excess will promote rapid germination, which will not provide complete rest.
Amaryllis needs a rest period. It is not necessary to store it in a cold room, a room temperature of 20 ºC to 22 ºC is sufficient. This will help you avoid unnecessary growth in winter. The care of amaryllis in winter and the storage of bulbs are described separately.
In the spring, the amaryllis will release a peduncle (read about the peduncle and structure of the amaryllis and the appearance of the flower here). In the summer, it is better not to take the plant out of the room, if the differences in day and night temperatures are significant.
During flowering, abundant watering is required. The top layer of the earth should dry out a little before the next watering.
Important! Air humidity should not exceed 80%, otherwise the flower will undergo fungal infection.
Water for irrigation should settle, be at room temperature. Do not allow water to get on the sleeping bulb or open buds. After flowering, watering must be reduced and stopped after two months. After a dormant period, when the peduncle grows to 10 cm, you can switch to the usual watering regime, taking into account the conditions in the room (air humidity, temperature, dryness).
During the flowering period, if the room is too dry, it is allowed to spray flowers and leaves.
The following soil composition is optimal:
- sod land (2 parts);
- sand (1 part);
- peat (1 part);
- humus (part 1).
The second option will ensure that excess water is removed into the sump:
- sod land (2 parts);
- sheet land (2 parts);
- peat (1 part);
- humus (part 1);
- washed river sand (part 1).
The soil should be light and loose, a slightly acidic (pH 6.0-6.5) or neutral medium is required.
It is optimal to feed (during the period of active growth, flowering) once every 10 days. Reduce feeding as soon as the plant has bloomed and stop after wilting of the leaves. When the peduncle begins to grow (usually in spring), feeding is resumed.
Attention! For flowering amaryllis, liquid complex fertilizers or special formulations for bulbous plants are used.
Why does the plant not bud and what to do?
For flowering to please you every year, you must comply with the conditions mentioned above.Let's analyze the care mistakes:
- They forget to reduce daylight hours, watering, temperature and feeding after the plant has bloomed. If there is no dormant period (from autumn to spring), the bulb will not be able to accumulate the required amount of nutrients. This will lead to a complete absence of inflorescences.
- Incorrectly selected pot: A pot that is too spacious will provoke vegetative reproduction. The accumulated substances will be transferred to the children, instead of inflorescences. So that the plant does not form children, a gap of 1.5 cm between the pot and the bulb is desirable.
- Poorly selected soil: If you cannot create a nutrient mixture for the plant yourself, it is better to buy special soil.
- Improper watering Watering should be done on the side of the pot, not on the bulb itself.
- Unsuitable place for a flower.It should be borne in mind that amaryllis needs bright diffused light, and not direct sunlight. It is also necessary to provide the temperature without sudden fluctuations.
- Poor planting material. Bulbs need to be checked before planting for the presence of children, diseases (we talked about diseases and pests of amaryllis and their treatment here). For prophylaxis, it can be treated with a fungicide solution for 30 minutes.
- Early dormancy.In order for the amaryllis to bloom annually, you need to wait until its leaves completely die off. Then remove the onion in a dark and dry place. The period of complete rest occurs in September and lasts 2-3 months.
- Submerging the bulb in hot water can boil it or cause rotting. The planting material is very sensitive.
How to make it bloom?
Let's analyze in stages:
- It all starts with buying a bulb. It should be heavy, dense, not soft, without streaks and signs of decay.
- Turn the bulb over, roots up, and place in a bright place. Physiological processes will be excited, and after a week it can be placed in the soil.
- Prepare a suitable pot and fill it with drainage, sand and nutrients in the correct proportions mentioned above. Add bone meal or ash (1-2 teaspoons) as a fertilizer rich in phosphorus (needed for flowering). If some of the roots are blackened or dry, remove. It is necessary to fill the onion by a third.
- Water sparingly until the flower arrow (stem) grows 10 cm. The peduncle is driven out in about 6-7 weeks. Watering during active growth is necessary as the topsoil dries out.
- Top dressing every 10 days.
Flowering lasts 20-30 days, during this period you do not need to fertilize. Distillation can be timed to coincide with any date. For example, by March 8th. Consider that the rest of the plant lasts 2-3 months, the arrow grows for 6-7 weeks, flowering - about a month. This means that at the beginning of October, the bulb must be removed to a cool, dark place.
A rest period can be triggered at the right time. Twist the leaves lightly into a bundle (2 turns) and lower them to the edge of the pot. They will begin to turn yellow and dry. When the leaves are brittle, separate them from the stalk.
We offer a video on how to make amaryllis bloom ?:
How can this period be extended?
Keep flowering plants cool. As soon as the first bud opens, it is necessary to cut the peduncle and put it in the water. When the repeated arrow grows and the buds begin to open, you can remove the anthers with tweezers. This will also increase the flowering period.
One of the most popular amaryllis is the belladonna variety, which you can learn about in our other article. We also have material about amaryllis bouquets.
Leaving after dropping the petals
First, but you need to do further, after the plant has bloomed, is to stop all kinds of feeding. Gradually you need to reduce watering (stop by the end of October).
Amaryllis is easy to grow at home if you follow all the recommendations. It will be easy to achieve flowering by a specific month (mentioned above). He is unpretentious. The bulbs are able to germinate even outdoors (learn about growing amaryllis outdoors and at home here). And the plant can please you for 15-20 years.