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Many gardeners strive to grow their own seedlings. This is a rather capricious plant that requires attention and care not only in adulthood, but also at the stage of growing seedlings. Indeed, the future harvest directly depends on its quality. That is why newcomers to the world of gardening are afraid to mess with tomatoes, preferring to tackle other, easier-to-care crops.
Further in the article we will talk about the agricultural technology of growing tomatoes from A to Z with all the intricacies of the matter, as well as about new trends. Find out what day to sow tomatoes, also study the photos of seedlings.
Seedlings are the most robust plants from a thickened planting, intended for an earlier harvest.
According to the growing period, seedlings are divided into early, middle and late:
- early seedlings are grown for the first harvests both in the open and in the warmed ground;
- the middle one is grown later in film greenhouses without heating, in cold greenhouses or under film;
- the latter is obtained outdoors in cold nurseries.
The seedling method of growing tomatoes has both advantages and disadvantages.
- good root system;
- getting early production;
- increased yield;
- the possibility of growing vegetables even in the northern regions of the country;
- the need for a much smaller area for sowing, which makes it easier to provide young plants with proper care;
- less consumption of seeds for seedlings in comparison with the required amount for sowing in a permanent place.
- the main disadvantage is the need to transplant seedlings, which negatively affects the fragile root system of plants;
- transplanting is time consuming.
Look at the photo of tomato seedlings, and read the article for information on how to grow it.
Growing tomato seedlings is possible, both on the window at home and on the street.
- growing in soil (in pots, cups);
- on peat tablets;
- in diapers without earth.
On the street, seedlings are grown in film greenhouses or in greenhouses... To get strong seedlings, and then a good harvest, it is enough to fulfill the necessary conditions for this:
- choose a sunny place for sowing;
- pick good quality seeds;
- ensure sufficient watering.
The ideal place for future seedlings should meet these criteria.:
- well-lit area;
- warmed up by the sun;
- protected from the wind;
- it is desirable that the previously grown vegetables in this area were: onions, carrots or cucumbers;
- the soil can be with a slightly acidic and neutral environment, it is better if it is of a sandy loam and loamy type;
- for faster soil warming, the site can be covered with a black film that attracts the sun's rays.
How to properly grow seedlings from tomato seeds and how to care for them?
When growing tomatoes from seeds, it is necessary to comply with a number of requirements for the seed:
- The seeds must be of high quality, they are the basis of the future harvest.
- Careful selection of varieties or hybrids is important (yield, disease resistance, keeping quality).
- Varieties and hybrids should be selected zoned. which are designed for a specific climate.
- The use of specially treated seeds will save you from the necessary procedure for their pre-sowing preparation: for example, soaking in a saline solution for up to ten minutes, in any purchased growth stimulator according to the instructions attached to it, in honey water (for a glass of water, 1 tsp. Of honey) for half an hour.
Next, how to properly grow strong, high-quality seedlings from tomato seeds? It is required to ensure their swelling and germination.
- To do this, place the seeds on a damp napkin, cover or put a napkin with seeds in a plastic bag.
- Placed in a warm place (closer to the battery, for example).
- Withstand until the seeds hatch, that is, small sprouts appear (up to 4mm).
Important. The seed napkin must not dry out!
The soil has been prepared since the fall, when such work is carried out.:
- All plant residues are removed.
- The soil is dug with a pitchfork at least twice to a depth of 30 cm, then it must be plowed through.
- As a top dressing, it is recommended to add compost in the amount of 5 kg per square meter (peat, bird droppings or humus can be used). If mineral fertilizers are preferred, then per sq. m. 50 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium salt is taken.
Top dressing of the soil can be done in the spring, if it was not applied in the fall.:
- add a mixture of 1.5 kg of wood ash, 1 kg of poultry droppings and 25 g per sq.m. to the soil. ammonium sulfate;
- or mineral fertilizers: per sq.m. - 55 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium chloride, 20 g of ammonium nitrate.
Top dressing of the soil with not rotted manure will provoke abundant growth of leaves, not fruits.
Ridges are formed about a week before planting.... Their optimal location is in the "north-south" direction so that the illumination of the seedlings is uniform.
How to properly grow tomatoes in a heated greenhouse?
This method is considered to be the most effective method for producing healthy and robust seedlings.
For growing tomatoes, including tall ones, in greenhouses, certain conditions must be met.
Step-by-step technology for growing tomatoes:
- The soil is prepared in the same way as described above.
- Furrows are made in the ridge at a distance of up to 20 cm from each other and up to 5 cm deep.
- Furrows are necessarily spilled with water.
- Dry prepared seeds are sown every 1-2 cm and covered with peat or wet sand.
- When two true leaves appear, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving the plants at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other. Then the soil must be watered.
- With the second thinning (after 2-3 weeks), the interval between seedlings will be 15 cm.
- After that, it is recommended to add a new layer of soil up to 6 cm thick to the garden bed. It is advisable to pour mulch in the aisles: peat or sand.
Growing tomatoes in stages will ensure an adequate yield.
There is a popular rule that helps determine the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings. It reads: you can sow seeds for seedlings when the snowdrop blooms.
The time for sowing seeds is influenced not only by climatic conditions, but also by the variety of tomatoes.
The timing recommendations indicated on the seed packaging, as a rule, are focused on areas of the middle zone of the country and are not suitable for other regions.
The general recommendation for determining the sowing time is: you need to count 50-60 days from the expected date of the last spring frost and sow tomatoes on that day. In the greenhouse, the sowing period will be two weeks earlier.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that seed varieties are subdivided into:
- early maturing;
- late ripening.
This aspect also affects the time of sowing seeds.
How to grow good seedlings and get more tomato harvest? For this gardeners use specific seed planting schemes... They depend on the number of subsequent picks:
- with one pick - sow at least 2 cm apart to a depth of 1.5 cm and a distance between grooves from 10 to 15 cm;
- at double - sowing is allowed more dense.
Growing strong tomato seedlings after planting with a bush or sowing seeds requires caring for it.
The rules of care include:
- watering (the soil should not be allowed to dry out, but it is also harmful to overfill);
- timely feeding (about them - hereinafter);
- airing and hardening.
Hardening can be carried out at an air temperature of 20 degrees Celsius... It is carried out with a gradual increase in time: first for 15-25 minutes a day, after a week - for half an hour. The time of the procedure increases every week.
Round-the-clock ventilation through a small window is possible at a constant temperature (day and night) of at least 15 degrees.
How to get a stocky bush with a thick stem?
Strong seedlings are obtained when they have enough light at all stages of growth, so it is important to choose the right area where they will grow.
How to get healthy material?
Timely feeding provides the seedlings with the necessary elements and the tomato seedlings grow healthy.
You can start feeding two weeks after germination... It is recommended to purchase biofertilizer and spray the seedlings with a liquid solution. It should be repeated every two weeks before transplanting the seedlings to a permanent place.
How to accelerate development?
To quickly grow tomatoes from stepchildren to fruits, you can treat tomato seeds with a special agent, such as a root growth stimulator.
Tricks and secrets of the best results
A useful secret to increasing the number of seedlings:
- if for any reason the seedlings break, the tops must be put in water and they will give roots;
- after planting in the ground, a full-fledged seedling grows, only it will begin to bear fruit later.
After the appearance of two real leaves on the seedlings, the seedlings must be dived, pre-well watering. The root is shortened by one third, which stimulates the best development of the root system. A second procedure will take about two weeks.
Possible problems and diseases
- seedling leaves turn yellow - the reasons may be: insufficient lighting, low temperature, lack of nutrients in the soil;
- decay of seedlings - reasons: due to excessive soil moisture, lack of drainage.
- white leaf spot - possible cause: infection from contaminated soil;
- brown leaf spot - reason: high air temperature and humidity;
- late blight - cause: contamination through soil or seed;
- black bacterial spot - also from seeds or soil;
- streakiness - cause: a virus transmitted by the seeds of infected plants;
- mosaic - also a viral disease.
To eliminate the listed problems, it is enough to establish a proper lighting and watering regime. For each disease, it is better to use special drugs that are sold in gardening stores and follow the instructions on the package.
When to transfer?
Folk omen: seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place when lilac or mountain ash blooms.
By the time of transplanting, seedlings that have reached a height of about 35 cm should have 8-10 true leaves. Before transplanting seedlings to a permanent place, all grooves are well watered... This will allow you not to injure the roots of the seedlings, easily taking them out with a lump of adjacent soil.
Following the simple rules described in the article will allow you to grow strong seedlings, which will then ensure a good harvest of tomatoes.